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Major Studies of Drugs and Drug Policy
Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs

Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs

37th Parliament, 1st Session
(January 29, 2001 - September 16, 2002)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

VOLUME I

PART I - GENERAL ORIENTATION

CHAPTER 1 - OUR MANDATE

WORDING

ORIGINS

INTERPRETATION

CHAPTER 2 - OUR WORK

TWO WORKING PRINCIPLES

STATE OF KNOWLEDGE

Research Program

Expert Witnesses

The Challenge of Synthesis

TAKING OPINIONS INTO ACCOUNT

INTERPRETING IN LIGHT OF PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER 3 - OUR GUIDING PRINCIPLES

ETHICS, OR THE PRINCIPLE OF RECIPROCAL AUTONOMY

GOVERNANCE: MAXIMIZING THE ACTIONS OF INDIVIDUALS

Collective governance

Governance of the self

The role of governance

CRIMINAL LAW AND THE LIMITS OF PROHIBITION

Requirement for distinctions

Criteria for distinction

Application to illegal drugs issues

SCIENCE OR APPROXIMATE KNOWLEDGE

CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 4 - A CHANGING CONTEXT

CHANGES IN THE INTERNATIONAL SPHERE

Globalization and Integration

Difficulties of the Security Debate

From Anti-Drug Policies to Drug Policies

CHANGES IN CANADA

Judicial Activism

A National Crime Prevention Strategy

The Fight Against Organized Crime

A SOCIETAL DEBATE

PART II - CANNABIS: EFFECTS, TYPES OF USE, ATTITUDES

CHAPTER 5 - CANNABIS: FROM PLANT TO JOINT

ONE PLANT, VARIOUS DRUGS

CANNABIS ROADs

PROPERTIES OF CANNABIS

D9THC Concentrations

Pharmacokinetics

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 6 - USERS AND USES: FORM, PRACTICE, CONTEXT

PATTERNS OF USE

Consumption by the population as a whole

Consumption among young people

Use patterns in other countries

Use Patterns in Europe

To summarize

PATTERNS AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF USE

Cannabis in History

Trajectories of Use

Factors Related to Use

To summarize

STEPPING STONE TOWARDS OTHER DRUGS?

CANNABIS, VIOLENCE AND CRIME

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 7 - CANNABIS: EFFECTS AND CONSEQUENCES

EFFECTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CANNABIS: WHAT WE WERE TOLD

ACUTE EFFECTS OF CANNABIS

CONSEQUENCES OF CHRONIC USE

Physiological Consequences of Chronic Use

Cognitive and Psychological Consequences

Behavioural and Social Consequences

TOLERANCE AND DEPENDENCE

Cannabis Dependence

Severity of Dependence

Tolerance

To summarize

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 8 - DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF CANNABIS

FORMS OF TESTING

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA

Studies not involving accidents

Studies where an accident was involved

Epidemiological studies on youth

Risk assessment

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

Non-driving activities

While driving

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 9 - USE OF MARIJUANA FOR THERAPEUTIC PURPOSES

HISTORY

CONTEMPORARY KNOWLEDGE

Therapeutic uses

Marijuana as a drug?

CURRENT THERAPEUTIC PRACTICES

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 10 - CANADIANS' OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES

THE MEDIA

SURVEYS

ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS SHARED WITH THE COMMITTEE

CONCLUSIONS

 

 

VOLUME II

PART III - POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN CANADA

CHAPTER 11 - A NATIONAL DRUG STRATEGY?

PHASE I - DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

Creation of the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

Creation of Canada's Drug Strategy Secretariat

PHASE II - RENEWAL

PHASE III - RENEWAL WITHOUT SPECIFIED FUNDING

CANADA'S DRUG STRATEGY - A SUCCESS?

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 12 - THE NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT

1908-1960: HYSTERIA

Opium Act, 1908

The Opium and Narcotic Drug Act, 1911

Amendments to the Opium and Narcotic Drug Act (1920-1938)

Amendments to the Act to Amend the Opium and Narcotic Drug Act in 1954

Senate Report of 1955

FROM 1960 TO THE LE DAIN COMMISSION: THE SEARCH FOR REASONS

Narcotic Control Act (1961)

An Act respecting Food and Drugs and Barbiturates (1961)

The Le Dain Commission (1969-1973)

The special report on cannabis

Bill S-19 and Cannabis

AFTER LE DAIN: FORGING AHEAD REGARDLESS

Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

Part I: Offences and Punishment

Part II: Enforcement

Part III Disposal of Controlled Substances

Part III Disposal of Controlled Substances

Part VI General

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 13 - REGULATING THERAPEUTIC USE OF CANNABIS

BACKGROUND TO THE RECENT REGULATIONS

Section 56 - Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

Charter Challenges - Therapeutic Use of Marijuana

Government Reaction

MARIHUANA MEDICAL ACCESS REGULATIONS

Authorization to Possess

Licence to Produce

Other Provisions

COMPASSIONATE ACCESS?

Eligibility

Access to cannabis

Products

Costs

RESEARCH PLAN

Scientific Research

Research-Grade Marijuana

CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 14 - POLICE PRACTICES

ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

RCMP

CHARGES UNDER THE CONTROLLED DRUGS AND SUBSTANCES ACT IN 1999

TheCanada Customs and Revenue Agency

Provincial and Municipal Police

COSTS

POLICE POWERS

Searches and Seizures

Entrapment and Illegal Activity

Conclusion

STATISTICS

Reported Incidents

Charges

Concerns

Customs Act - Fines

SEIZURES

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 15 - THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

PROSECUTION

COURTS

Drug Treatment Courts

DISPOSITION AND SENTENCING

Criminal record

CORRECTIONS

CRIMINAL RECORD

COURT CHALLENGES

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 16 - PREVENTION

INITIATIVES THAT FALL SHORT OF THE MARK

Not enough prevention

Prevention lacks focus

There is not enough evaluation of preventive measures

Preventive and social messages in contradiction

There is a body of knowledge on which we have to draw

PREVENTING WHAT AND HOW?

RISK REDUCTION AND HARM REDUCTION

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 17 - TREATMENT PRACTICES

CANNABIS DEPENDENCY

FORMS OF TREATMENT

EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT

CONCLUSIONS

 

CHAPTER 18 - OBSERVATIONS ON PRACTICES

DIFFICULTIES IN HARMONIZING THE PLAYERS

INCONGRUITIES OF APPROACH

SIGNIFICANT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COSTS

Conclusions

 

 

VOLUME III

PART IV - PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS

CHAPTER 19 - THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ENVIRONMENT

A GENEALOGY

The 1909 Shanghai Conference

The 1912 Hague International Opium Convention

The 1925 Geneva Opium Conventions

The 1931 Geneva Narcotics Manufacturing and Distribution Limitation Convention / 1931 Bangkok Opium Smoking Agreement

The 1936 Geneva Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs

The Second World War

The 1946 Lake Success Protocol

The 1948 Paris Protocol

The 1953 New York Opium Protocol

Multilateral Agreements on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

THE THREE CURRENT CONVENTIONS

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

SOME LEEWAY?

CONCLUSIONS

 

 

CHAPTER 20 - PUBLIC POLICIES IN OTHER COUNTRIES

FRANCE

Different Forms of Logic

An Integrated Public Policy

Legislative Framework

Key Reports

Statistics on Use and Offences

Costs

THE NETHERLANDS

Dutch Pragmatism?

Essential Experts Reports

Legislation

The Coffee Shop System

Data on Use

UNITED KINGDOM

Ten-Year Strategy to Battle Drugs

Legislative Framework

Other Relevant Legislation in the Field of Drug Misuse

Debate in the UK

Recent Key Reports and Studies

Administration

Costs

Statistics

SWEDEN

National Strategy

Legislative Framework

Debate in Sweden

Recent Reports

Costs

Administration

Statistics

SWITZERLAND

A Harm Reduction Policy

The Legal Framework

A Bill to Decriminalize Cannabis

Administration of Swiss Drug Policy

Statistics on Narcotics Use and Offences under the Narcotics Act

AUSTRALIA

National Drug Strategy

Legislative Framework

Decriminilization in Australia

Administration

Statistics

UNITED STATES

The Federal-State Legislative Framework

Current Legislation and Enforcement

Federal Drug Policy Goals and Objectives

Administration of the Policy

Current Issues and Debates

Statistics

 

CHAPTER 21 - PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS

INEFFECTIVENESS OF CRIMINAL POLICIES

Impact on Consumption

Impact on Supply

Conclusion

GENERAL ECONOMY OF A PUBLIC POLICY ON CANNABIS

COMPONENTS OF A PUBLIC POLICY

Strong Decision-making Body

Interconnection

A Shared Definition of Shared Objectives

Information Tools

LEGISLATIVE OPTIONS

Clarification of criminology

Criteria for a Legal Policy on Cannabis

 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

LE DAIN - ALREADY THIRTY YEARS AGO

INEFFECTIVENESS OF THE CURRENT APPROACH

PUBLIC POLICY BASED ON GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Recommendations

A CLEAR AND COHERENT FEDERAL STRATEGY

NATIONAL STRATEGY SUSTAINED BY ADEQUATE RESOURCES AND TOOLS

A PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

A REGULATORY APPROACH TO CANNABIS

A COMPASSION-BASED APPROACH FOR THERAPEUTIC USE

PROVISIONS FOR OPERATING A VEHICLE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF CANNABIS

RESEARCH

CANADA'S INTERNATIONAL POSITION

 PROPOSALS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE REGULATION OF CANNABIS FOR THERAPEUTIC AND RECREATIONAL PURPOSES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

VOLUME IV

APPENDICES

Glossary of key terms

Library Highlights

Drug Information Articles

Drug Rehab