Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs

The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs

by Edward M. Brecher and the Editors of Consumer Reports Magazine, 1972

Permission to quote


The authors wish to acknowledge their appreciation to the following authors, publishers, individuals, publications and institutions for permission to use selected materials from their works.

Harold A. Abramson, John Buckman, Sidney Cohen, and The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. for "Theoretical Aspects of LSD Therapy," by John Buckman, and for "Psychotherapy, with LSD Pro and Con," by Sidney Cohen (reprinted from  The Beyond Within:  The LSD Story, Atheneum, New York; copyright © 1964, 1967 by Sidney Cohen). Both published in  The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism, edited by Harold A. Abramson. Copyright © 1967 by Harold A. Abramson. The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., publisher.

Academic Press for  Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals, by William B. Deichmann and Horace W. Gerarde. Copyright © 1969 by Academic Press, Inc.

Addiction and Drug Abuse Report for permission to reprint material from  Addiction and Drug Abuse Report, June 1971. Copyright © 1971, by Grafton Publications Inc.

Aldine-Atherton, Inc. for "Habit Mechanisms in Smoking," by William A. Hunt and Joseph D. Matarazzo, published in  Learning Mechanisms in Smoking, edited by W. A. Hunt. Copyright © 1970 by Aldine-Atherton, Inc.

Aldine-Atherton, Inc., for  Utopiates: The Use and Users of LSD-25, by Richard H. Blum and Associates. Copyright © 1964 by Atherton Press. Reprinted by permission of the author and Aldine-Atherton, Inc.

Michael R. Aldrich for "Heads Hidden in the Hemp Fields." Copyright © 1970 by Marijuana Research Association.

Harold Alksne, Ray E. Trussell, and Jack Elinson for "A Follow-Up Study of Treated Adolescent Narcotics Users," 1959; unpublished.

Almqvist and Wiksell for "The Present State of Abuse and Addiction to Stimulant Drugs in Sweden," by Gunnar Inghe, edited by Folke Sjöqvist and Malcolm Tottie. Copyright 1969 by Almqvist & Wiksell.

American Cancer Society for "The Teenager Looks at Cigarette Smoking," research study conducted by Lieberman Research, Inc., September 1969.

American College of Physicians for paper presented by Ralph W. Richter, John Pearson and Michael M. Baden at the 51st Annual Session of the American College of Physicians, 1970.

American Institutes for Research for "Factors Related to Successful Abstinence from Smoking: Final Report," by Joan S. Guilford, et al. Copyright © 1966 by American Institutes for Research.

American Journal of Medicine for "Pulmonary Edema in Acute Heroin Poisoning," by Robert Silber and E. P. Clerkin, July 1959. Copyright © 1959 by  American Journal of Medicine.

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology for "Pregnancy in Narcotics Addicts Treated by Medical Withdrawal," by George Blinick, Robert C. Wallach, and Eulogio Jerez, December 1, 1969, and "Pregnancy and Menstrual Function in Narcotics Addicts Treated with 'Methadone," by Robert C. Wallach, Eulogio Jerez, arid George Blinick, December 15, 1969. Copyright © 1969 by C. V. Mosby Company.

The American Journal of Psychiatry for "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25): A Clinical Psychological Study," by Charles Savage, 1952; "Addictive Aspects in Heavy Cigarette Smoking," by Peter H. Knapp, C. M. Bliss and H. Webb, 1963; "A Twelve-Year Follow-up of New York Narcotic Addicts: 1. The Relation of Treatment to Outcome," by George Vaillant, 1965; "Flashbacks: Recurrent Intrusive Images After the Use of LSD," by Mardi J. Horowitz, October 1969; "Crime and LSD: The Insanity Plea," by James T. Barter and Martin Reite, October -1969; an article by James R. Allen, Louis Jolyon West, and Joshua Kaufman, November 1969; and "Navajo Peyote Use-Its Apparent Safety," by Robert L. Bergman, December 1971. Copyright © 1952, 1963, 1965, 1969, 1971 by American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association for  The Treatment of Drug Abuse, by Raymond M. Glasscote, et al., 1971; in press for 1972 publication by joint Information Service of the American Psychiatric Association and the National Association for Mental Health.

American Journal of Public Health for "Inside What's Happening: Sociological, Psychological and Spiritual Perspectives on the Contemporary Drug Scene," by Allan Y. Cohen, November 1969. Copyright © 1969 by American Public Health Association, Inc.

American Journal of Psychology for "Some Psychological Aspects of Nicotinism," by F. I. Arntzen, 1948. Copyright 1948 by University of Illinois Press.

American Journal of Surgery for "Epidemic of Fatal Malaria Among Heroin Addicts in New York City," by Milton Helpern, 1943. Copyright 1943 by  American Journal of Surgery.

American Social Health Association for  The Opium Problem, by Charles E. Terry and Mildred Pellens. Copyright 1928 by Committee on Drug Addictions, Bureau of Social Hygiene, Inc.

Annals of Internal Medicine for "The Major Medical Complications of Heroin Addiction," by D. D. Louria, T. Hensle, and J. Rose, 1967. Copyright © 1967 by American College of Physicians.

Harry J. Anslinger for personal communication and "Marijuana: Assassin of Youth," by Harry J. Anslinger arid C. R. Cooper, July 1937,  American Magazine.

Appleton-Century-Crofts for  Principles and Practice of Medicine, 8th ed., by W. Osler and T. MacCrae. Copyright 1916 by Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Archives of General Psychiatry for "On the Use and Abuse of LSD," by Daniel X. Freedman, March 18, 1968; "Organicity Measures Following Repeated LSD Ingestion," by William H. McGlothlin, David 0. Arnold, and Daniel X. Freedman, December 1969, "Chronic Psychosis Associated with Long-Term, Psychotomimetic Drug Abuse," by George S. Glass arid Malcolm B. Bowers, August 1970, and "LSD Re-visited--- A Ten Year Follow-up of Medical LSD Use," by William H. McGlothlin and David 0. Arnold, January 1971. Copyright © 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971 by the American Medical Association.

Archives of Internal Medicine for articles by Arthur B. Light and Edward G. Torrance,  A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine, vols. 43 (1929) and 44 (1930). Copyright 1929, 1930 by American Medical Association.

Archives of International Pharmacodynamics for "Caffeine-Induced Hemorrhagic Automutilation," by J. M. Peters, 1967. Copyright © 1967 by Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie.

Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry for "Chronic Psychosis and Addiction to Morphine," by A. Z. Pfeffer and D. C. Ruble, December 1946, and "Chronic Barbiturate Intoxication," by Harris Isbell, et al., July 1950. Copyright © 1946, 1950 by American Medical Association.

Archives of Pathology for "Acute Methyl Alcohol Poisoning," by F. R. Menue, 1938. Copyright 1938 by American Medical Association.

Associated Press Newsfeatures for an article by Robert Berrellez, 1969. Published in the  Reporter Dispatch, White Plains, New York, October 1, 1969.

Astor-Honor for  Chemical Concepts of Psychosis, edited by M. Rinkel and H. C. B.

Denber, 1958. Cited by Morris A. Lipton in "The Relevance of Chemically-Induced Psychoses to Schizophrenia," published in  Psychotomimetic Drugs, Daniel H. Efron, ed., 1970. Reprinted by permission of Astor-Honor, Inc.

Atheneum, and Laurence Pollinger Limited for  The Beyond Within: The LSD Story by Sidney Cohen. Copyright © 1964, 1967 by Sidney Cohen. Atheneum, and Martin Secker & Warburg, Ltd., publishers,

Michael M. Baden for "Pathological Aspects of Drug Addiction," from Proceedings of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, 1969.

Mitchell Balter for "The Use of Drugs in Contemporary Society," paper presented at the 14th Annual Conference, Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies in Psychiatry, April 1, 1969; unpublished.

Mitchell Baiter and Jerome Levine for "Character and Extent of Psychotherapeutic Drug Usage in the United States," paper presented at Fifth World Congress on Psychiatry Mexico City, November 30, 1971.

Basic Books, Inc. for  The Road to H: Narcotics, Delinquency and Social Policy, by Isidor Chein, Donald L. Gerard, M.D., Robert S. Lee, and Eva Rosenfeld. Copyright 1964 by Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.

Ronald Bayer for Letter to the Editor, published in the  New York Times, July 20, 1971.

Herbert Benson for Letter to the Editor, "Yoga for Drug Abuse," published in the  New England Journal of Medicine, November 13, 1969.

Herbert Benson and R. Keith Wallace for "Decreased Drug Abuse with Transcendental Meditation," from  Proceedings of the International Symposium on Drug Abuse, November 1970.

Samuel Benson for "Marijuana Use by Medical Students," paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, May 1971; unpublished.

Charles R. Beye for Letter to the Editor, published in the  New York Times, October 30, 1969.

Brandon House for "Myths and Realities of Marijuana Pushing," by Jerry Mandel. Published in  Marijuana Myths and Realities, edited by J. L. Simmons. Copyright © 1967 by Brandon House, Chatsworth, California.

British Journal of Addiction for an article by J. Yerbury Dent, 1952, Copyright 1952 by  British Journal of Addiction.

British Journal of Medical Psychology for "Cigarette Smoking: Natural History of a Dependence Disorder," by, M. A. Hamilton Russell, 1971. Copyright © 1971 by  British Journal of Medical Psychology. Published by Cambridge University Press.

British Medical Journal for October 1922 issue, cited in New York Post, "The Famous Addicts-Article III: Freud and Halsted," by Sally Hammond, July 22, 1970; article by T. H. Bewley, November 1965; and Editorial, August 7, 1971. Copyright 1922, © 1965, 1971 by  British Medical Journal.

Richard Brotman and Alfred M. Freedman for "Perspectives on Marijuana Besearch," work prepared for Center for Studies in Substance Use; unpublished.

Andrew G. Bucaro for personal communication.

Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine for "Thoughts on Narcotics Addiction," by Vincent P. Dole, February 1965, Copyright © 1965 by  Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine.

Bulletin on Narcotics
for "Cannabis," by J. Bouquet, 1951, and "The Use of Cannabis Drugs in India," by I. C. Chopra and R. N. Chopra, 1957.

California Medicine for "Psychotherapeutic Drug Use Among Adults in California," by Dean Manheimer, Glen D. Mellinger and Mitchell B. Baiter, December 1968; and in Medicine, Past, Present and Future," by Tod H. Mikuriya, January 1969. Copyright © 1968, 1969 by California Medical Association.

Canadian Medical Association Journal for "The Use of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) in Psychotherapy," by E. F. W. Baker, December 5, 1964; "Coca Leaf and Cocaine Addiction-Some Historical Notes," by H. P. Blejer-Prieto, September 25, 1965; and "What Society Must Do to Solve Problem of Drug Use Among Young," by Honourable John Munro, November 7, 1970. Copyright © 1964, 1965, 1970 by Canadian Medical Association.

Charles E. Cherubin for "The Epidemiology of Death in Narcotics Addicts," by Charles E. Cherubin et al., 1971; unpublished; in press.

Chest for "Epidemiology and Psychology of Cigarette Smoking," by Daniel Horn, May 1971. Copyright © 1971 by American College of Chest Physicians.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics for "The Role of Nicotine as a Determinant of Cigarette Smoking Frequency in Man with Observations of Certain Cardiovascular Effects Associated with the Tobacco Alkaloid," by B. R. Lucchesi, C. R. Schuster and G. S. Emley, 1967; and "Psychotropic Effects of Caffeine in Man," by Avram Coldstein and Sophia Kaizer, July 8, 1969. Copyright © 1967, 1969 by C. V. Mosby Company.

Sidney Cohen for "LSD and the Anguish of Dying," copyright © 1965 by Minneapolis Star and Tribune Co., Inc. Reprinted from the September, 1965 issue of  Harper's Magazine by permission of the author.

Columbia Law School News for an article by Barry L. Morris, November 11, 1969. Copyright © 1969 by  Columbia Law School News.

Comprehensive Psychiatry for "Misapprehension About Drug Addiction: Origins and Repercussions," by Henry Brill, June 1963; "The LSD Controversy," by Jerome Levine and Arnold M. Ludwig, 1964; "An Approach to Treating Narcotic Addicts Based on a Community Mental Health Diagnosis," by Richard Brotman, Alan S. Meyer, and Alfred M. Freedman, April 1965. Copyright © 1963, 1964, 1965 by Crune & Stratton, Inc.

The Controller of Her Britannic Majesty's Stationery Office for  Cannabis–– Report by the Advisory, Committee on Drug Dependence, 1968;  The Amphetamines and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)–– Report by the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, Department of Health and Social Security, 1970. Reprinted by permission of the Controller of Her Britannic Majesty's Stationery Office.

Crown Publishers for "The Herb Pantagruelion," by François Rabelais, translated by Samuel Putnam. Published in  The Marihuana Papers, edited by David Solomon. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., publisher.

Diseases of the Nervous System for "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25) as an Aid in Psychotherapy," by A. K. Busch and W. C. Johnson, 1950. Copyright 1950 by  Diseases of the Nervous System.

Denver Post, August 2, 1959; June 12, 1960; October 23, December 8, 1961; April 13, 29, 1962; January 18, March 21, April 22, 29, June 25, July 2, 1965; January 11, May 18, June 10, October 30, 1966, Copyright © 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1966  Denver Post.

Meyer H. Diskind for "New Horizons in the Treatment of Narcotic Addiction," by Meyer H. Diskind,  Federal Probation, December 1960 and "Narcotic Addiction and Post-Parole Adjustment," by Meyer H. Diskind, Robert F. Hallinanan and George Klonsky, 1963, unpublished, cited in "A Second Look at the New York State Parole Drug Experiment," by Meyer H. Diskind and George Klonsky,  Federal Probation, December 19,64.

Vincent P. Dole for personal communication.

E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc, for  Story of San Michele, by Axel Munthe. Copyright 1929 by E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. Renewal 1932 by Axel Munthe and 1951 by Major Malcolm Munthe. Published by E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. and used with their permission.

Encyclopaedia Britannica for "Hemp," "Ether," and "Coffee," 11th edition. Copyright 1910, 1911 by  Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Inc. for  The Murderers by Harry J. Anslinger and Will Oursler. Copyright @) 1961 by Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Inc.

Fawcett Publications, Inc., for  The LSD Story by John Cashman, published by Cold Medal Books. Copyright © 1966 by Fawcett Publications, Inc.

4424 Youth Clinic, Montreal, for Interim Report for 4424, Inc., 1970; unpublished.

Free Press, March 17, 1970. Copyright © 1970 by  Free Press, Burlington, Vermont.

W. H. Freeman and Company for "The Hallucinogenic Drugs," by Frank Barron, Murray E. Jarvik, and Sterling Bunnell, Jr. Copyright © 1964 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.

Funk & Wagnalls Co., Inc. for  The Traffic in Narcotics, by Harry J. Anslinger and William F. Tompkins. Copyright 1953 by Funk & Wagnalls Co., Inc. Used with permission of the publisher, Funk & Wagnalls, Inc., Publishers.

Gavin-jobson Associates for  The Liquor Handbook, 1970. Copyright © 1970 by Cavin-jobson Associates.

George R. Gay for paper presented at National Heroin Symposium, June 1971.

George R. Gay et at. for "Short Term Heroin Detoxification on an Outpatient Basis"; unpublished.

Allen Ginsberg for interview,  Los Angeles Free Press, December 1965.

Grove Press and Peter 0wen Ltd. for  The Book of Grass: An Anthology of Indian Hemp, edited by George Andrews and Simon Vinkenoog. Copyright © 1967 by Peter Owen. Published by Peter Owen, London. Reprinted by permission of Grove Press, Inc.

Grune & Stratton, Inc. for  The Drug Addict as a Patient, by Marie Nyswander. Copyright © 1956 by Grune & Stratton, Inc.

Grune & Stratton, Inc. for "Some Problems of Addiction," by Karl M. Bowman. Published in  Problems of Addiction and Habituation, edited by Paul H. Hock and Joseph Zubin. Copyright © 1957 by Crime & Stratton, Inc.

Seymour Halleck, quoted in  Marijuana–– The New Prohibition, by, John Kaplan.

George G. Harrap & Company Ltd. for  A History of Smoking, by Count Egor Caesar Corti, trans, Paul England, 1931. Copyright 1931 by George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd.

Daniel Horn for "The Smoking Problem in 1971," presented at American Cancer Society's Thirteenth Annual Science Writers Seminar, 1971.

Hutchinson of London for  Wooden Bygones of Smoking and Snuff Taking, by Edward H. Pinto. Copyright © 1961 by the Hutchinson Publishing Group.

Illinois Medical Journal for "Stripping the Medical Profession of Its Powers and Giving Them to a Body of Lawmakers. The Proposed Amendment to the Harrison Narcotic Act–– Everybody Seems to Know All about Doctoring except the Doctors," June 1926. Copyright 1926 by  Illinois Medical Journal.

Indiana University Press for  Drug Addiction: Crime or Disease? Interim and Final Reports of the Joint Committee of the American Bar Association and the American Medical Association on Narcotic Drugs. Introduction Copyright © 1969 by Indiana University Press.

Indiana University, Press for  Narcotic Addiction in Britain and America, by Edwin M. Schur. Copyright © 1968 by Indiana University Press.

The International Journal of the Addictions, January 1966; "Plastic Cement: The Ten Cent Hallucinogen," by Edward Preble and Gabriel V. Laury, Fall 1967; "Anesthetic Addiction and Drunkenness," by David R. Nagle; and "A Bibliography on the Inhalation of Glue Fumes and Other Toxic Vapors," by Lenore R. Kupperstein and Ralph M. Susman, both Spring 1968; "Physical, Mental and Moral Effects of Marijuana," by Tod H. Mikuriya, Fall 1968; "Preliminary Observations on Patterns of Drug Consumption Among Medical Students," by Jack D. Blaine, Carl M. Lieberman, and Joseph Hirsh, Fall 1968; "Taking Care of Business-The Heroin User's Life on the Street," by Edward Preble and John J. Casey, Jr., March 1969; "Heroin Addicts on Methadone Replacement: A Study of Dropouts," by Richard G. Adams et at., June 1971; and "Cyclazocine in a Multi-Modality Treatment Program: Comparative Results," by John N. Chappel, Edward C. Senay, and Jerome H. Jaffe, September 1971. Copyright © 1967, 1968 by the Institute for the Study of Drug Addiction. Copyright 1969, 1971 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. Reprinted by courtesy of Marcel Dekker, Inc.

The Johns Hopkins Press for "Analgesics and the Reaction Component of Pain," by Henry K. Beecher. Published in  Drugs and the Brain, edited by Perry Black. Copyright © 1969 by The Johns Hopkins Press.

Harris Isbell for personal communication.

Mrs. Katharine Jones, The Hogarth Press, and Basic Books, Inc. for  The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud by Ernest Jones. Copyright © 1953 by Ernest Jones, Basic Books, Inc., and The Hogarth Press Ltd., publishers.

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology for "Morphinism," by L. L. Stanley, November 1915, and "Dope Fiend Mythology," by Alfred R. Lindesmith, July-August 1940, both in  Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Copyright 1915, 1940 by the  Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (including the  American Journal of Police Science).

Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases for "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Side Effects and Complications," by Sidney Cohen, January 1960. Copyright © 1960 by The Williams & Wilkins Co.

Journal of Psychedelic Drugs for "LSD: Its Use, Abuse and Suggested Treatment," by David E. Smith and Alan J. Rose, and "Incidents Involving the Haight-Asbbury Population and Some Uncommonly Used Drugs," by Frederick H. Myers, Alan J. Rose, and David E. Smith, both published in Vol. 1, no. 2 (1967-68); "U.S. Marijuana Legislation and the Creation of a Social Problem," by Roger C. Smith, Vol. 2, no. 1 (1968); "The World of the Haight-Ashbury Speed Freak," by Roger C. Smith, and "An Introduction to Amphetamine Abuse," by John C. Kramer, both Vol. 2, no. 2 (1969); "The Changing Patterns of Heroin Addiction in the Haight-Ashbury Subculture," by Charles W. Sheppard, George R. Gay, and David E. Smith, Vol. 3, Spring ( 1971); Proceedings of the National Heroin Symposium, June 19-20, 1971, Vol. 4, issue 1 (1971). Copyright © 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971 by  Journal of Psychedelic Drugs.

The Journal of the American Medical Association for "Queries and Minor Notes," 1930; "A Study of the Promiscuous Use of the Barbiturates," by W. E. Hambourger, April 1937; "Federal Regulation of the Medicinal Use of Cannabis," May 1, 1937; "Report of Committee on Legislative Activities," June 26, 1937; "Marijuana: A Psychiatric Study " by Walter Bromberg, July 1, 1939; "The Marijuana Problem," by J. D. Reichard, June 24, 1944; "Drug-Induced Mood Changes in Man," by Louis Lasagna, John M. von Felsinger, and Henry K. Beecher, March 19, 1955; "Glue-Sniffing in Children," by, Helen H. Glaser and Oliver N. Massengale, July 28, 1962; Patterns of Hallucinogenic Drug Abuse," by Arnold M. Ludwig and Jerome Levine, January 11, 1965; "Caffeinism," by Hobart A. Reimann, December 18, 1967; "Characteristics of Drug Abusers Admitted to a Psychiatric Hospital," by Leon J. Hekimian and Samuel Gershon, July 15, 1968; "Successful Treatment of '150 Criminal Addicts," by Vincent P. Dole, Marie E. Nyswander, and Alan Warner, December 16, 1968; "Institutionalization Patterns Among Civilly Committed Addicts," by John C. Kramer, June 23, 1969; "Halsted of Johns Hopkins, The Man and His Problem as Described in the Secret Records of William Osler," by Wilder Penfield, December 22, 1969; "Effects of LSD on Human Pregnancy," by William H. McGlothlin, Robert S. Sparkes, and David 0. Arnold, June 1, 1970; "Marijuana-Induced Hospitalization," by- George D. Lundberg, Janeth Adelson, and Eric H. Prosnitz, January 4, 1971; and "The British Narcotic 'Register' in 1970: A Factual Review," by Frederick B. Glaser and John C. Ball, May 17, 1971. Copyright 1930, 1937, 1939, 1944, © 1955, 1962, 1965, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971 by the American Medical Association.

The Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey for "Cannabis Indica in Pharmaceuticals," by Marty Sasman, 1938. Copyright 1938 by The Medical Society of New Jersey.

The Julian Press for  Psychology and the Great God Fun, by A. E. Hamilton. Copyright © 1955 by The Julian Press, Inc.

The Lancet for article by F. E. Tylecote, 1927; "Tobacco Smoking and Nicotine," by Lennox M. Johnston, December 19, 1942; "On the Therapeutic Uses and Toxic Effects of Cannabis Indica," by J. Russell Reynolds, March 22, 1970; and "Deaths in United Kingdom Opioid Users," by Ramon Gardner, September 26, 1970. Copy-right 1927, 1942, © 1970 by The Lancet Ltd.

Lange Medical Publications for  Handbook of Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment, 7th ed., Robert H. Dreisbach. Copyright © 1971 by Lange Medical Publications.

Jerome Levine for paper presented at National Association of Student Personnel Aministrators Drug Education Conference, November 7-8, 1966; unpublished.

Licensed Beverage Industries, Inc. for  LBI Facts Book 1970.

Alfred R. Lindesmith for  Opiate Addiction. Copyright 1947 by Alfred R. Lindesmith. Published by Principia Press.

Alfred R. Lindesmith for "Student Drug Use Viewed by a Sociologist," October 1968; unpublished.

J. B. Lippincott Company for  Marijuana, America's New Drug Problem, by Robert P. Walton. Copyright 1938 by J. B. Lippincott.

Little, Brown and Company for  The Mighty Leaf, by Jerome E. Brooks. Copyright 1952 by Little, Brown and Company.

E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. for  Public Health in the Nineteenth Century, by C. Fraser Brockington. Copyright © 1965 by E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd.

Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service for an article published in  Detroit News, June 4, 1970.

Edward J. Lynn for "Nitrous Oxide: It's a Gas!" presented at 124th Annual Meeting of American Psychiatric Association, 1971; unpublished,

William H. McGlothlin for "Toward a Rational View of Hallucinogenic Drugs," by William H. McGlothlin. Paper distributed at National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference, November 7-8, 1966; unpublished.

McGraw-Hill Book Company for "The Rehabilitation of the Drug Addict," by George B. Wallace, published in  Journal of Educational Sociology, 1931. Quoted in Narcotics, edited by Daniel M. Wilner and Gene C. Kassebaum. Copyright © 1965 by Blakiston Division of McGraw-Hill Company.

Rand McNally & Company for  A Doctor Among the Addicts, by Nat Hentoff, Copyright © 1968 by Nat Hentoff; published by Rand McNally & Company.

The Macmillan Company for "Marijuana: A Sociological Overview,'' from  Outsiders by Howard S. Becker. Copyright © 1963 by The Free Press of Glencoe, a division of The Macmillan Company. Published in  The Marihuana Papers, edited by David Solomon. Copyright © 1966 by David Solomon. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., publisher.

The Macmillan Company for  The Peyote Religion, by J. S. Slotkin. Copyright © 1956 by The Free Press of Glencoe, a division of The Macmillan Company.

The Macmillan Company for  The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman, editors, 3rd edition (1965) and 4th edition (1970). Copyright © 1965, 1970 by The Macmillan Company.

The Macmillan Company for  Delinquency and Opportunity by Richard A. Cloward and Lloyd E. Ohlin, cited in Preble and Casey, "Taking Care of business-The Heroin User's Life on the Street,"  International Journal of the Addictions, March 1969. COP),right © 1964 by The Free Press of Glencoe, a division of The Macmillan Company.

Nicolas Malleson for "Acute Adverse Reactions to LSD in Clinical and Experimental Use in the United Kingdom," provisional report, June 1969 unpublished. Later published in  The British Journal of Psychiatry, February 1971. Copyright © 1971 by Royal Medico-Psychological Association.

Medical Center Hospital of Vermont for  Progress and Care, August 1970.

Medical Economics for Physicians' Desk Reference to Pharmaceutical Specialties and Biologicals, 26th ed., 1972. Copyright (~) 1972 by Medical Economics Company.

The Medical Letter, October 3, 1969 and March 5, 1971. Copyright © 1969, 1971 by  The Medical Letter.

Medical Tribune, January 12, 1969, July 7, 1969 and October 10, 1969. Copyright 1969 by Medical Tribune, Inc. Reprinted by courtesy of  Medical Tribune.

Medical World News, September 19, 1969, and September 3, 1971. Copyright 1969, 1971 by  Medical World News.

The Medico-Legal Journal for "Drugs and Delinquency," February 11, 1965. Copyright © 1965 Medico-Legal Society,

Glen D. Mellinger for "The Psychotherapeutic Drug Scene in San Francisco," August 13, 1969; unpublished.

Mental Hygiene for "Pleasure and Deterioration from Narcotic Addiction," by Lawrence Kolb, 1925. Copyright 1925 by National Association for Mental Hygiene.

Ministry of National Health and Welfare of Canada for  Interim Report of the Commission of Inquiry Into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs, 1970. Copyright © 1970 Information Canada, Ottawa.

Minnesota State Medical Association and Moses Barron for report to the Minnesota State Medical Society, by Moses Barron, August 25, 1921.

Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia for  History of Drug Addiction and Legislation in Canada by Ingeborg Paulus. Copyright © November 1966 by Narcotic Addiction Foundation of B.C.

George Nash for "The Phoenix House Program: The Results of a Two Year Follow-up," by George Nash, Dan Waldorf, Kay Foster, and Ann Kyllingstad, February 1971; unpublished.

National Observer for "Drug Program at $250 Million, Deemed a Failure," by Owen Moritz, June 8, 1970. Copyright © 1970 Dow Jones Company, Inc.

Nature and William McGlothlin~ior "Marijuana and the Use of Other Drugs," by William McGlothlin, K. Jamison, and S. Rosenblatt, December 19, 1970. Copyright 1970,  Nature (London).

New England Journal of Medicine for "Caffeine Intoxication," by Margaret C. McManamy and Purcell G. Schube, 1936; "Glue Sniffing by Youngsters Fought by Department," November 8, 1962; "In Vivo and In Vitro Chromosomal Damage Induced by LSD-25," by M. M. Cohen, K. Hirschhorn, and W. A. Frosch, October 1967; Letter to the Editor "Yoga for Drug Abuse," by Herbert Benson, November 13, 1969, and "Medical Progress: Marijuana," by Richard Colestock Pillard, August 6, 1970. Copyright 1936, © 1962, 1967, 1969, 1970 by  New England Journal of Medicine.

New Orleans Item for  New Orleans Morning Tribune, October 17, 19, 23, 28, 1926; and  New Orleans Item, October 22, 1926 and February 4, 1927.

The New Physician for "Use of Amphetamines, Marijuana and LSD by Students," by P. H. Blachly, April 1966, and an article by, John C. Kramer, March 1969. Copyright @) 1966, 1969 by Student American Medical Association.

New Republic for "The Risks of Marijuana," by David Sanford. Copyright © 1967 by Harrison-Blaine of New Jersey, Inc.

New York Daily News, September 29, 1969 and March 11, 1966. Copyright

1966, 1969 by the  New York Daily News. Reprinted by courtesy of the  New York Daily News.

New York Law Journal for articles by Vincent P. Dole, William R. Martin, and Norman E. Zinberg, December 6, 1971. Copyright © 1971 by  New York Law Journal.

New York Medicine for "Medical Aspects of Drug Abuse," by Michael M. Baden, 1968. Copyright © 1968 by  New York Medicine.

New York Post for "49 Agents Quit in Drug Probe," by Warren Hoge, October 27, 1969. Copyright © 1969 by New York Post Corporation. Reprinted by permission of New York Post.

New York State Journal of Medicine for "Mental Sequelae of the Harrison Law," May 15, 1915; "A Physician's Blueprint for the Management and Prevention of Narcotic Addiction," by Hubert S. Howe, February 1, 1955; "Rehabilitation of Heroin Addiets After Blockade with Methadone," by Vincent P. Dole and Marie E. Nyswander, August 1, 1966; and "Deaths from Narcotism in New York City," by Milton Helpern and Yong-Myun Rho, September 15, 1966. Copyright 1915, © 4955, 19646 by Medical Society of the State of New York. Reprinted by permission of the  New York State Journal of Medicine.

The New York Times, October 6, 1961, April 25, 1963, February 27, 1965, April 7, 12, May 30, 1966, May 20, 26, August 18, September 5, 9, 22, 23, 25, 28, October 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 23, 24, 26, 30, November 7, December 5, 16, 1969, January 2, February 1, 15, March 24, 29, April 4, June 21, August 9, 23, October 6, December 13, 30, 1970, January 17, 25, February 22, April 18, 'May 16, 2.3, June 22, July 1, 20, September 12, 28, November 3O and December 5, 1971. Copyright @) 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission.

New York University Press for  Coffee, by Ralph Holt Cheney. Copyright 1925 by New York University Press.

Newsweek, August 13, 1962. Copyright @) 1962 by Newsweek, Inc.

Vincent Nowlis for "Drugs, The Self and Society," presented at National Association of Student Personnel Administration Drug Education Conference, Philadelphia, March 13, 1967; unpublished,

Marie Nyswander for personal communication.

John A. O'Donnell for personal communication.

Hugh J. Parry for "Caffeine, Nicotine, Alcohol and Psychoactive Prescription Drugs," by Social Research Group, The George Washington University; unpublished.

Pharmacological Reviews for an article by Harris Isbell and H. F. Fraser, vol. 2 (1950). Copyright 1950 by The Williams & Wilkins Co,

The Practitioner for "Some Problems of Opiate Addiction," by J. H. Willis, February 1968. Copyright © 1968 by  The Practitioner.

Psychiatric News for "LSD Discoverer Disputes 'Chance' Factor in Finding," April 21, 1971, and an article, December 15, 1971. Copyright © 1971 by  Psychiatric News.

Psychopharmacologia for an article by C. D. Frith, 1971. Copyright © 1971 by Springer-Verlag, publishers,

Public Opinion Quarterly for "Primary Levels of Underreporting Psychotropic Drug Use," by Hugh J. Parry, Mitchell B. Balter, and Ira H. Cisin, Winter 1970-71. Copyright (~) 1970, 1971 by  Public Opinion Quarterly.

G. P. Putnam's Sons for "A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents," by Humphrey Osmond, and "Pain and LSD-25: A Theory of Attenuation of Anticipation," by E. Kast. Published in  LSD, The Consciousness-Expanding Drug edited by David Solomon. Copyright © 1964, 1966 by David Solomon. G. P. Putnam's Sons, publishers.

Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol for "Treatment of Alcoholism with Lysergide1," by Wilson Van Dusen, Wayne Wilson, et al., 1967. Copyright © 1967 by Journal of Alcohol Studies, Inc.

Random House, Inc. for  The Big Drink: The Story of Coca-Cola, by E. J. Kahn, Jr. Copyright © 1960 by Random House, Inc.

Random House, Inc. for  The New Handbook of Prescription Drugs, by Richard Burack, M.D. Copyright © 1967, 1970 by Richard Burack, M.D. Published by Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc.

Random House, Inc. for  The Making of the English Working Class, by E. P. Thompson. Copyright 9 1963 by E. P. Thompson. Published by Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc.

Raven Press for  Psychotomimetic Drugs, edited by Daniel H. Efron. Copyright © 1970 by Raven Press.

Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14th ed., 1970. Copyright © 1970 by  Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, published by Mack Publishing Company.

The Ronald Press Company for "The Marijuana Problem in the City of New York," by the Mayor's Committee on Marijuana. Copyright 1944 by The Ronald Press Company. Published in  The Marihuana Papers, edited by David Solomon. Copyright

1966 by David Solomon. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., publishers.

J. H. Rothschild, and McIntosh and Otis, Inc. for Tomorrow's Weapons. Copyright Cc 1964 by J. H. Rothschild. Cited in  Chemical and Biological Warfare: America's Hidden Arsenal by Seymour M. Hersh. Copyright © 1968, by Seymour 'M. Hersh. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., publishers.

Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd. for  Phantastica: Narcotic and Stimulating Drugs, Their Use and Abuse, by Louis Lewin, 1924, trans. 1931; reprint, 1964, E. P. Dutton & Co. Copyright © 1964 by Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd.

St. Martin's Press, Inc. for  Drugs and the Mind, by Robert S. de Ropp. Copyright 1957 by St. Martin's Press, Inc., Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

W. B. Saunders Company for  Textbook of Pharmacology, by William T. Salter. Copyright 1952 by W. B. Saunders Company, publishers.

Richard Evans Schultes for personal communication.

Science for "The Role of Nicotine in the Cigarette Habit," by J. K. Finnegan, P. S. Larson, and H. B. Haag, July 27, 19-43; "Chromosomal Damage in Human Leukocytes Induced by Lysergic Acid Diethylamide," by M. M. Coben, M. Marinello, and N. Bach, March 17, 1967; "Hallucinogens of Plant Origin," by R. E. Schultes, January 17, 1969; "Marijuana Use Among Urban Adults," by Dean 1. Manheimer, G. D. Mellinger, and M. B. Baiter, December 19, 1969; "Chromosomal Abnormalities in the Human Population; Estimation of Rates Based on New Haven Newborn Study," by H. A. Lubs and F. H. Ruddle, July 31, 1970; "Marijuana in Man: Three Years Later, by L. E. Hollister, April 2, 1971, and "Narcotic Antagonists: New Methods to Treat Heroin Addiction," by A. L. Hammond, August 6, 1971. Copyright 1945, © 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971 by American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Scientist and Citizen for "Chemical Weapons, What They Are, What They Do," by Victor W. Side and Robert M. Goldwyn, August-September, 1967. Copyright © 1967 by Committee for Environmental Information.

The Shoe String Press for  The Peyote Cult, by Weston LaBarre. Copyright © 1959, 1964 by The Shoe String Press, Inc. Preface Copyright © 1969 by Weston LaBarre. Reprinted by permission of the publishers, The Shoe String Press, Inc., Hamden, Connecticut.

David E. Smith for "Testimony to National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse," San Francisco, 1971; and for remarks at National Heroin Symposium, San Francisco, 1971.

Roger C. Smith for "The Marketplace of Speed: Violence and Compulsive Methamphetamine Abuse"; unpublished.

Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs for  Pharmacological and Epidemiological Aspects of Adolescent Drug Dependence, edited by C. W. M. Wilson, 1966. Copyright © 1968 by Pergamon Press, Inc,

Southern Medical Journal for " The Treatment of Drug Addicts at the Lexington Hospital," by Lawrence Kolb and W. F. Ossenfort, August 1938. Copyright 1938 by  Southern Medical Journal.

Jonathan Spence for "Opium Smoking in Ch'ing China," 1971; unpublished.

Stanford Medical Bulletin for "Morphine Addiction for 62 Years, by Windsor C. Cutting, August 1942. Reprinted by permission  Stanford M.D.

George H. Stevenson for "Drug Addiction in British Columbia: A Research Survey," 1956; unpublished. Reprinted by permission of the author.

Supermarketing for "Summary of 1970 Consumer Expenditures," September 1971. Copyright © 1971 by, C. M. Business Publications, Inc.

Svenska Läkartidningen for "Försök med Nikotin, Lobelin och Placebo," by B. Ejrup and P. A. Wikander, July 17, 1959. Copyright © 1959 by Swedish Medical Association.

John S. Tamerin for paper presented by John S. Tamerin and Charles P. Neumann at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, May 1971; unpublished'.

Charles C Thomas for  Drug Addiction, A Medical Problem, by Lawrence Kolb, Copyright © 1962 by Charles C Thomas, Publishers. Courtesy of Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, lllinois.

Time for "The New Kick," February 16, 1962, and "Blues for Janis," October 19, 1970. Reprinted by permission of  Time, The Weekly Newsmagazine. Copyright © 1962, 1970 by Time Inc.

Today's Health for "Pep Teasers," by Iago Galdston, published in  Hygeia, October 1940, by The American Medical Association. Copyright 1940 by The American Medical Association.

Transactions of Association of American Physicians for "Narcotic Blockade--- A Medical Technique for Stopping Heroin Use by Addicts," by Vincent P. Dole and Marie E. Nyswander, 1966, Copyright © 1966 by  Transactions of Association of American Physicians.

University of Toronto Press for  Morphine and Allied Drugs, by A. K. Reynolds and Lowell 0. Randall, Copyright © 1957 by University of Toronto Press.

U.S. News and World Report and Gerald E. Davidson for article of September 27, 1971.

The Village Voice for article by Ken Sobol, October 21, 1971, Reprinted by permission of The Village Voice. Copyright 1971 by The Village Voice, Inc.

The Wall Street Journal, December 7, 1962, article by Phillip E. Norton; April 17, 1963, Editorial; August 20, 1969, article by Edward B. Zucker-man; September 11, 1969, article by Peggy J. Murrell. Copyright © 1962, 1963, 1969 by  The Wall Street Journal.

Washington Post, February 12, 1969; January 14, 1970, article by B. J. Phillips; August 12, 1970, article by Nicholas von Hoffman. Copyright @) 1969, 1970 by  The Washington Post.

Andrew T. Weil for "Altered States of Consciousness, Drugs, and Society," September 18, 1970; unpublished.

Wesleyan University Press, and Faber and Faber, Ltd., for "The Therapeutic Potential of LSD in Medicine," by Albert A. Kurland et al. Published in  LSD, Man and Society, edited by Richard C, DeBold and Russell C. Leaf. Copyright © 1961 by Wesleyan University,

West Virginia Medical Journal for "Drug Addiction in Upper Economic Levels: A Study of 142 Cases," by Eugene J. Morhous, July 1953. Copyright 1953 by  West Virginia Medical Journal.

Grenville B. Whitman for The Dolly, August 1969. Published by Man Alive, Inc.  WHO Chronicle for "Smoking arid Health," by C. M. Fletcher and Daniel Horn, 1970. Copyright © 1970 by World Health Organization.

The Williams & Wilkins Co. for  Pain Sensations and Reactions, by James D. Hardy, Harold G. Wolff, arid Helen Goodell. Copyright 1952 by The Williams & Wilkins Co.

Wilshire Book Company for  The Peyote Story, by Bernard Roseman. Copyright 1963 by Wilshire Book Company.

W. Thomas Winquist for "The Effects of the Regular Practice of Transcendental Meditation on Students Involved in the Regular Use of Hallucinogenic and 'Hard' Drugs," 1969; unpublished.

World Publishing Company, and Brandt & Brandt for  Marijuana--- The New Prohibition, by John Kaplan. Copyright © 1970 by John Kaplan. World Publishing Company, publishers.

World Publishing Company for  High Priest, by Timothy Leary. Copyright 1968 by World Publishing Company. The New American Library, publishers.

The Yale Law Journal for "The Narcotics Bureau arid the Harrison Act: jailing the Healers, and the Sick," by Rufus King, 1953. Reprinted by, permission of the Yale Law Journal Company and Fred B. Rothman & Company.

 

The authors are also grateful to the following persons for permission to quote from their papers, presented at the following conferences.

Vincent P. Dole and Frances R. Gearing for papers presented at First National Conference on Methadone Treatment, June 1968.

Michael M. Baden, William A. Bloom, Jr., Emmett P. Davis, Vincent P. Dole, Frances R. Gearing, Jerome H. Jaffe, Herbert Kleber, Mary Jane Kreek, Robert A. Maslansky, and Ray Trussell for papers presented at Second National Conference on Methadone Treatment, October 1969.

Saul Blatman, George Blinick, William A. Bloom, Jr., Dean V. Babst, Paul Cushman, Jr., Morton 1. Davidson, Frances R. Gearing, Avram Goldstein, Robert G. Newman, Gordon T. Stewart, and William F. Wieland for papers presented at Third National Conference on Methadone Treatment, November 1970.

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