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Anomie and Traffic Alcoholism: Establishments and Prospects
Gh. Scripcaru, V. Astarastoae, V. Constantinescu and L.V. Constantin
Institute of Legal Medicine, Bd. Independentei, nr. 1, 6600-Iasi, Romānia
Before the revolution from 1139 solicitations for the dosing of alcohol in concentrations under one gr o/oo (penal dose) at 129 persons and over this limit at 321 persons (therefore 37% from all the probes.
Although, this test does not seem to support with arguments a discorder of the behaviour to the alcohol consumption in traffic. But, it notices: the ubiquity of alcohol consumption in the two studied periods; ubiquity which consists in the consumption of alcohol like an intrinsic impulse, indifferent by of the social reasons; the high rate of the alcohol consumption in the both periods notices a social and common anomie, that is to say a non recognition of the rules because of an unspected by liberalisation; this great percentage of the consumers of alcohol in traffic, induces to adopt measures of "lege ferenda" for the coming down of the blood alcohol concentration to a level under 1 g o/oo, taking into account the high rate of the traffic accidents and the intensification of the traffic on the public roads.
The total consumption of alcohol in a certain community is dependent on succession of some elements like: the kind and the amount of the beverages produced, the ampleness and the facilities of the supply, the general attitude of the society towards the alcohol and the being of the contradictions in the society, the prices politic for the alcoholic beverages, the purchasing power of the population and the social and cultural influences.
The Rumanian society passing through an economic and spiritual transitional period from a totalitarian regime to a democratic one, determined use to analyze if this deed is reflected in the consumption of the alcohol in traffic and which are its baleful implications in the safety of the traffic roads.
Our statistic data prove without ambiguity that the alcohol is one of the risk factors implied in the traffic accidents. The study of 1139 solicitations for the dosing of the alcohol tied to the traffic roads, in 1989 noticed at 450 cases different blood alcohol concentration. We found at 129 drivers alcohol levels under 1go/oo (penal limit) and at 321 drivers over this level (therefore, 39% from all the detections).
After the revolution from 1989, in 1993, were performed 1409 examinations tied to the traffic and we found that 544 drivers were under the influence of alcohol. Concentrations under 1go/oo were found at 147 drivers and over the penal dose at 397 drivers (37% from all the examinations).
Although, the number of the examinations blood alcohol concentrations raised consecutively to the exigencies in connection with the using of public roads resulted that the percentage of the persons which were remained roughly constant (39% in the year 1989 and 38% in 1993).
The frequency of the accidents related to the blood alcohol concentration emphasizes the fact that their majority are generated at concentrations over 1go/oo, what is in keeping with the legal measures for the establishment of the penal incriminated alcohol level.
What seems to be very evidently is the impressively number of accidents at blood alcohol levels under the penal one. This fact suggests incontestably the evil roll of the alcohol for the driving ability. it is easily to give an appreciation of the risk which the alcohol represents concentrations and it is very difficult at low levels. A lot of epidemiologic studies evaluated the effects of alcohol in driving experiences. They noticed a multiplications of the risk with 16 at alcohol levels of 1.5go/oo, with 5 at 1go/oo, and with 3 at 0.5go/oo. From these data presented above result clearly for anyone that the driving of a vehicle by a person under the influence of alcohol presents a so great risk, in proportion as the alcohol level is greater.
In the same time, although the law foresees a restricted level of the alcohol concentration, and though it comprises the worse for drink too, independent of the blood alcohol concentrations, seem to be very usefully to adopt measures of "law ferenda" for the lowering of the incriminated level of the alcohol concentration, the more so as this supports a specific mentality to some drivers after which, until to the legal level, the alcohol would not be dangerously in driving. This achieves a false feeling of safety, some drivers drink amounts of alcohol beforehand not reaching the incriminated legal concentration.
The reality of those 129 cases in 1989 and 147 cases in 1993 with blood alcohol concentrations below the penal level of 1go/oo determines us to point out this factor of risk as a measure to perform the prophylaxis of an important number of accidents.
Although, this test does not seem to support with arguments a disorder of the behavior of the alcohol consumption in traffic. But it notices:
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