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Today we are faced with more questions than answers as we examine the impact of these initiatives. It is fair to say that both propositions were well-crafted and well-thought out, and their authors fully intended to mask their true agenda in the guise of drug "medicalization," while keeping the medical conditions for which controlled substances can be used extremely vague. The passage of these propositions raises important legal and law enforcement issues which we are currently assessing. But there are two very basic facts that have not changed: first, that the Clinton Administration is unequivocally opposed to the legalization of drugs, and second, that the Drug Enforcement Administration will continue to target and arrest the most significant drug traffickers operating domestically and internationally.
What the Propositions Do:
Voters who supported Proposition 215 in California were led to believe that this initiative would simply allow medical doctors to treat terminally ill and suffering patients with marijuana for the relief of pain symptoms. In reality, the proposition allows anyone who receives a doctor's "recommendation" to possess and use marijuana for cancer, AIDs, glaucoma and "any other illness for which marijuana provides relief." It allows doctors to verbally "recommend" marijuana use to minors, prisoners, individuals in sensitive positions --- simply anyone who claims to have a medical condition. The proposition, by extension, also allows individuals to smoke and cultivate marijuana openly, on the premise that marijuana has been recommended for the individual's "medical condition."
In Arizona, voters were asked to approve the "Drug Medicalization, Prevention and Control Act of 1996." Packaged as a truth-in-sentencing and drug prevention measure, proponents masked the true agenda of Proposition 200. Buried within the proposition was a provision which allows a physician to prescribe controlled substances included in Schedule I to terminally ill patients and to seriously ill patients suffering pain.
The Arizona proposition is more restrictive than the California version in that a physician must cite a study confirming the proven medical benefits of a Schedule I drug and provide a written prescription which is kept in the patient's medical file, and the patient is required to obtain a written opinion from a second physician confirming that the prescription for the Schedule I substance is "appropriate to treat a disease or to relieve the pain and suffering of a seriously ill patient or terminally ill patient." However, the Arizona proposition also provided for other actions which erode effective, tough drug policies, including the release of prisoners "previously convicted of personal possession or use of a controlled substance."
Despite the differences between the two ballot initiatives, there is an indisputable similarity: both states now allow individuals to possess substances which have no legitimate medical use. Both California and Arizona, despite what the proponents claim, have taken the first steps towards the proponents' ultimate goal of legalizing drugs.
Who Supported the Proposition
Proposition 215 in California and Proposition 200 in Arizona were drafted, financed and supported by legalization proponents using the compassionate pain argument as a guise for their drug legalization agenda. Billionaire financier and legalization advocate, George Soros, provided hundreds of thousands of dollars in California alone to garner support for the proposition. In Arizona, Soros almost doubled his California donations, a significant portion of which were made through organizations, such as the Drug Policy Foundation, with which he is affiliated. Other donors included representatives from the Progressive Corporation, the Men's Warehouse, and other pro- legalization groups.
Proponents waged a sophisticated, misleading campaign which led voters to believe that the initiatives were simply limited to compassionate pain relief. Opponents of the propositions, including the American Cancer Society, the California Medical Association, the Glaucoma Research Foundation, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the California Narcotics Officers Association and many family groups concerned about the impact of drug legalization on the nation's children, were outspent and out-campaigned by the well-orchestrated effort to legalize drugs on a national basis. These individuals cynically used the suffering and illness of vulnerable people to further their own agenda.
Those of us who fought against the initiative, including General McCaffrey, myself, HHS Secretary Shalala and former Presidents Ford, Carter and Bush, found it extremely difficult to engage the media in California and Arizona and discuss the real issues underlying these propositions. Even the fact that 13,000 members of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, meeting in Phoenix, Arizona in late October, passed a resolution strongly opposing these initiatives, received little attention.
Before discussing the practical implications that these two propositions will have on law enforcement and ultimately on American children, I would like to take a moment to discuss the DEA's position on the medical use of marijuana.
The Medical Use Issue
In March, 1992, DEA Administrator Robert Bonner, re-affirmed the DEA's position that there is "no currently accepted medical use" for marijuana, and denied the petition of the National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) to re- schedule marijuana from Schedule I to Schedule II. After a lengthy hearing process, the DEA made this conclusion based on testimony and comments from numerous medical doctors who had conducted detailed research and were widely considered experts in their respective fields. Briefly, the decision states among other things that:
It is common knowledge that the active ingredient in marijuana, known as THC, is available in pure form, manufactured pharmaceutically in capsules as Marinol. There have been no medical studies indicating that any property in marijuana other than THC has any beneficial medical effect. There have been dramatic advances made in relieving the side effects of cancer treatment during the past decade, and drugs such as Zofran and Kytril are available to physicians. Many medical experts consider these new drugs far more effective than Marinol. In the DEA's opinion in 1992, and in 1996, there is no scientific information which supports re-classifying marijuana as a Schedule II substance, making it available for medical use.
To say that marijuana should be used for pain relief is similar to saying that cigarettes should be prescribed as an appetite suppressant to those seeking to lose weight. Our research shows definitively that smoking causes lung cancer and emphysema, and our society acknowledges the dangers of tobacco. Why, then, should we believe, simply on the word of those who seek to normalize their own behavior, that marijuana should be widely available for all to smoke? Why should we allow a few individuals, who write checks in the comfort of their upper-class homes, to dictate policies which we know are harmful?
Implications for Law Enforcement
Perhaps the most complex questions we are facing today as a result of these propositions pertain to law enforcement. As representatives on the panel of state and local experts will testify, the passage of these initiatives raises important law enforcement issues in both states. Earlier this month, General McCaffrey convened a meeting of representatives from state and local law enforcement to discuss the practical implications of these propositions, and how federal law enforcement together with their state and local task force partners will continue to target and arrest major drug traffickers.
I would like to discuss a few scenarios which raise questions and graphically illustrate the practical issues which face law enforcement in light of these developments.
Travel back to the DRCNet Response to the DEA Home Page
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Schaffer Library of Drug Policy
Major Studies of Drug and Drug Policy
Marihuana, A Signal of Misunderstanding - The Report of the US National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
Licit and Illicit Drugs
Short History of the Marijuana Laws
The Drug Hang-Up
Congressional Transcripts of the Hearings for the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937
Frequently Asked Questions About Drugs
Basic Facts About the Drug War
Charts and Graphs about Drugs
Information on Alcohol
Guide to Heroin - Frequently Asked Questions About Heroin
LSD, Mescaline, and Psychedelics
Drugs and Driving
Children and Drugs
Drug Abuse Treatment Resource List
American Society for Action on Pain
Let Us Pay Taxes
Marijuana Business News
Reefer Madness Collection
Medical Marijuana Throughout History
Drug Legalization Debate
Legal History of American Marijuana Prohibition
Marijuana, the First 12,000 Years
DEA Ruling on Medical Marijuana
Legal References on Drugs
GAO Documents on Drugs
Response to the Drug Enforcement Agency
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