|Own your ow legal marijuana business||
Your guide to making money in the multi-billion dollar marijuana industry
CONVENTION ON PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES*
Being concerned with the health and welfare of mankind,
Noting with concern the public health and social problems resulting from the abuse of certain psychotropic substances,
Determined to prevent and combat abuse of such substances and the illicit traffic to which it gives rise,
Considering that rigorous measures are necessary to restrict the use of such substances to legitimate purposes,
Recognizing that the use of psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes is indispensable and that their availability for such purposes should not be unduly restricted,
Believing that effective measures against abuse of such substances require co-ordination and universal action,
Acknowledging the competence of the United Nations in the field of control of psychotropic substances and desirous that the international organs concerned should be within the framework of that Organization,
Recognizing that an international convention is necessary to achieve these purposes,
Agree as follows:
USE OF TERMS
Except where otherwise expressly indicated, or where the context otherwise requires, the following terms in this Convention have the meanings given below:
* Note by the Secretariat: In the following text a number of minor corrections are included which were required owing to certain errors and omissions in the English text of the original of the Convention and which were made by a Procès-Verbal of Rectification of the Original of the Convention, signed on 15 August 1973 and communicated to Governments by the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations in circular notes C.N.169. 1973. TREATIES-5 and C.N.321. 1974. TREATIES-1 dated 30 August 1973 and 9 December 1974 respectively. They affect article 2, para. 7 (a) and the chemical formulae of certain substances in Schedules I, II and IV annexed to the Convention.
"Council" means the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.
SCOPE OF CONTROL OF SUBSTANCES
1. If a Party or the World Health Organization has information relating to a substance not yet under international control which in its opinion may require the addition of that substance to any of the Schedules of this Convention, it shall notify the Secretary-General and furnish him with the information in support of that notification. The foregoing procedure shall also apply when a Party or the World Health Organization has information justifying the transfer of a substance from one Schedule to another among those Schedules, or the deletion of a substance from the Schedules.
2. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to the Parties, to the Commission and, when the notification is made by a Party, to the World Health Organization.
3. If the information transmitted with such a notification indicates that the substance is suitable for inclusion in Schedule I or Schedule 11 pursuant to paragraph 4, the Parties shall examine, in the light of all information available to them, the possibility of the provisional application to the substance of all measures of control applicable to substances in Schedule I or Schedule 11, as appropriate.
4. If the World Health
(b) That there is sufficient evidence that the substance is being or is likely to be abused so as to constitute a public health and social problem warranting the placing of the substance under international control, the World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission an assessment of the substance, including the extent or likelihood of abuse, the degree of seriousness of the public health and social problem and the degree of usefulness of the substance in medical therapy, together with recommendations on control measures, if any, that would be appropriate in the light of its assessment.
5. The Commission, taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization, whose assessments shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and bearing in mind the economic, social, legal, administrative and other factors it may consider relevant, may add the substance to Schedule I, II, III or IV. The Commission may seek further information from the World Health Organization or from other appropriate sources.
6. If a notification under paragraph 1 relates to a substance already listed in one of the Schedules, the World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission its new findings, any new assessment of the substance it may make in accordance with paragraph 4 and any new recommendations on control measures it may find appropriate in the light of that assessment. The Commission, taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization as under paragraph 5 and bearing in mind the factors referred to in that paragraph, may decide to transfer the substance from one Schedule to another or to delete it from the Schedules.
7. Any decision of the Commission taken pursuant to this article shall be communicated by the Secretary-General to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the World Health Organization and to the Board. Such decision shall become fully effective with respect to each Party 180 days after the date of such communication, except for any Party which, within that period, in respect of a decision adding a substance to a Schedule, has transmitted to the Secretary-General a written notice that, in view of exceptional circumstances, it is not in a position to give effect with respect to that substance to all of the provisions of the Convention applicable to substances in that Schedule. Such notice shall state the reasons for this exceptional action. Notwithstanding its notice, each Party shall apply, as a minimum, the control measures listed below:
(a) A Party having given such notice with respect to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule I shall take into account, as far as possible, the special control measures enumerated in article 7 and, with respect to that substance, shall:
(b) A Party having given such notice with regard to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule II shall, with respect to that substance:
(c) A Party having given such notice with regard to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule III shall, with respect to that substance;
(d) A Party having given such notice with regard to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule IV shall, with respect to that substance:
(e) A Party having given such notice with regard to a substance transferred to a Schedule providing stricter controls and obligations shall apply as a minimum all of the provisions of this Convention applicable to the Schedule from which it was transferred.
8. (a) The decisions of the Commission taken under this article shall be subject to review by the Council upon the request of any Party filed within 180 days from receipt of notification of the decision. The request for review shall be sent to the Secretary-General together with all relevant information upon which the request for review is based.
(b) The Secretary-General shall transmit copies of the request for review and the relevant information to the Commission, to the World Health Organization and to all the Parties, inviting them to submit comments within ninety days. All comments received shall be submitted to the Council for consideration.
(c) The Council may confirm, alter or reverse the decision of the Commission. Notification of the Council's decision shall be transmitted to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the Commission, to the World Health Organization and to the Board.
(d) During pendency of the review, the original decision of the Commission shall, subject to paragraph 7, remain in effect.
9. The Parties shall use their best endeavours to apply to substances which do not fall under this Convention, but which may be used in the illicit manufacture of psychotropic substances, such measures of supervision as may be practicable.
SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING THE CONTROL OF
1. Except as provided in the following paragraphs of this article, a preparation is subject to the same measures of control as the psychotropic substance which it contains, and, if it contains more than one such substance, to the measures applicable to the most strictly controlled of those substances.
2. If a preparation containing a psychotropic substance other than a substance in Schedule I is compounded in such a way that it presents no, or a negligible, risk of abuse and the substance cannot be recovered by readily applicable means in a quantity liable to abuse, so that the preparation does not give rise to a public health and social problem, the preparation may be exempted from certain of the measures of control provided in this Convention in accordance with paragraph 3.
3. If a Party makes a
finding under the preceding paragraph regarding a preparation, it may decide to exempt the
preparation, in its country or in one of its regions, from any or all of the measures of
control provided in this Convention except the requirements of:
A Party shall notify the Secretary-General of any such decision, of the name and composition of the exempt preparation, and of the measures of control from which it is exempted. The Secretary-General shall transmit the notification to the other Parties, to the World Health Organization and to the Board.
4. If a Party or the World Health Organization has information regarding a preparation exempted pursuant to paragraph 3 which in its opinion may require the termination, in whole or in part, of the exemption, it shall notify the Secretary-General and furnish him with the information in support of the notification. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to the Parties, to the Commission and, when the notification is made by a Party, to the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission an assessment of the preparation in relation to the matters specified in paragraph 2, together with a recommendation of the control measures, if any, from which the preparation should cease to be exempted. The Commission, taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization, whose assessment shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and bearing in mind the economic, social, legal, administrative and other factors it may consider relevant, may decide to terminate the exemption of the preparation from any or all control measures. Any decision of the Commission taken pursuant to this paragraph shall be communicated by the Secretary-General to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the World Health Organization and to the Board. All Parties shall take measures to terminate the exemption from the control measure or measures in question within 180 days of the date of the Secretary-General's communication.
OTHER SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING THE SCOPE OF
In respect of psychotropic
substances other than those in Schedule I, the Parties may permit:
LIMITATION OF USE TO MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES
1. Each Party shall limit the use of substances in Schedule I as provided in article 7.
2. Each Party shall, except as provided in article 4, limit by such measures as it considers appropriate the manufacture, export, import, distribution and stocks of, trade in, and use and possession of, substances in Schedules II, III and IV to medical and scientific purposes.
3. It is desirable that the Parties do not permit the possession of substances in Schedules II, III and IV except under legal authority.
It is desirable that for the purpose of applying the provisions of this Convention, each Party establish and maintain a special administration, which may with advantage be the same as, or work in close co-operation with, the special administration established pursuant to the provisions of conventions for the control of narcotic drugs.
SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING SUBSTANCES IN SCHEDULE I
In respect of substances in
Schedule I, the Parties shall:
1. The Parties shall require that the manufacture of, trade (including export and import trade) in, and distribution of substances listed in Schedules II, III and IV be under licence or other similar control measure.
2. The Parties shall:
3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article relating to licensing or other similar control measures need not apply to persons duly authorized to perform and while performing therapeutic or scientific functions.
4. The Parties shall require that all persons who obtain licences in accordance with this Convention or who are otherwise authorized pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article or sub-paragraph (b) of article 7 shall be adequately qualified for the effective and faithful execution of the provisions of such laws and regulations as are enacted in pursuance of this Convention.
1. The Parties shall require that substances in Schedules II, III and IV be supplied or dispensed for use by individuals pursuant to medical prescription only, except when individuals may lawfully obtain, use, dispense or administer such substances in the duly authorized exercise of therapeutic or scientiflc functions.
2. The Parties shall take measures to ensure that prescriptions for substances in Schedules II, III and IV are issued in accordance with sound medical practice and subject to such regulation, particularly as to the number of times they may be refilled and the duration of their validity, as will protect the public health and welfare.
3. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, a Party may, if in its opinion local circumstances so require and under such conditions, including record-keeping, as it may prescribe, authorize licensed pharmacists or other licensed retail distributors designated by the authorities responsible for public health in its country or part thereof to supply, at their discretion and without prescription, for use for medical purposes by individuals in exceptional cases, small quantities, within limits to be defined by the Parties, of substances in Schedules III and IV.
WARNINGS ON PACKAGES, AND ADVERTISING
1. Each Party shall require, taking into account any relevant regulations or recommendations of the World Health Organization, such directions for use, including cautions and warnings, to be indicated on the labels where practicable and in any case on the accompanying leaflet of retail packages of psychotropic substances, as in its opinion are necessary for the safety of the user.
2. Each Party shall, with due regard to its constitutional provisions, prohibit the advertisement of such substances to the general public.
1. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedule I, manufactures and all other persons authorized under article 7 to trade in and distribute those substances keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing details of the quantities manufactured, the quantities held in stock, and, for each acquisition and disposal, details of the quantity, date, supplier and recipient.
2. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedules II and III, manufacturers, wholesale distributors, exporters and importers keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing details of the quantities manufactured and, for each acquisition and disposal, details of the quantity, date, supplier and recipient.
3. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedule II, retail distributors, institutions for hospitalization and care and scientific institutions keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing, for each acquisition and disposal, details of the quantity, date, supplier and recipient.
4. The Parties shall ensure, through appropriate methods and taking into account the professional and trade practices in their countries, that information regarding acquisition and disposal of substances in Schedule III by retail distributors, institutions for hospitalization and care and scientific institutions is readily available.
5. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedule IV, manufacturers, exporters and importers keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing the quantities manufactured, exported and imported.
6. The Parties shall require manufacturers of preparations exempted under paragraph 3 of article 3 to keep records as to the quantity of each psychotropic substance used in the manufacture of an exempt preparation, and as to the nature, total quantity and initial disposal of the exempt preparation manufactured therefrom.
7. The Parties shall ensure that the records and information referred to in this article which are required for purposes of reports under article 16 shall be preserved for at least two years.
PROVISIONS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Every Party permitting the export or import of substances in Schedule I or II shall
require a separate import or export authorization, on a form to be established by the
Commission, to be obtained for each such export or import whether it consists of one or
2. (a) The Parties shail require that for each export of substances in Schedule III exporters shall draw up a declaration in triplicate, on a form to be established by the Commission, containing the following information:
shall furnish the competent authorities of their country or region with two copies of the
declaration. They shall attach the third copy to their consignment.
3. In respect of
substances in Schedules I and II the following additional provisions shall apply:
PROHIBITiON OF AND RESTRICTIONS ON EXPORT AND IMPORT
1. A Party may notify all the other Parties through the Secretary-General that it prohibits the import into its country or into one of its regions of one or more substances in Schedule II, III or IV, specified in its notification. Any such notification shall specify the name of the substance as designated in Schedule II, III or IV.
2. If a Party has been notified of a prohibition pursuant to paragraph 1, it shall take measures to ensure that none of the substances specified in the notification is exported to the country or one of the regions of the notifying Party.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, a Party which has given notification pursuant to paragraph 1 may authorize by special import licence in each case the import of specified quantities of the substances in question or preparations containing such substances. The issuing authority of the importing country shall send two copies of the special import licence, indicating the name and address of the importer and the exporter, to the competent authority of the exporting country or region, which may then authorize the exporter to make the shipment. One copy of the special import licence, duly endorsed by the competent authority of the exporting country or region, shall accompany the shipment.
SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE CARRIAGE
1. The international carriage by ships, aircraft or other forms of international public transport, such as international railway trains and motor coaches, of such limited quantities of substances in Schedule II, III or IV as may be needed during their journey or voyage for first-aid purposes or emergency cases shall not be considered to be export, import or passage through a country within the meaning of this Convention.
2. Appropriate safeguards shall be taken by the country of registry to prevent the improper use of the substances referred to in paragraph I or their diversion for illicit purposes. The Commission, in consultation with the appropriate international organizations, shall recommend such safeguards.
3. Substances carried by ships, aircraft or other forms of international public transport, such as international railway trains and motor coaches, in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be subject to the laws, regulations, permits and licences of the country of registry, without prejudice to any rights of the competent local authorities to carry out checks, inspections and other control measures on board these conveyances. The administration of such substances in the case of emergency shall not be considered a violation of the requirements of paragraph I of article 9.
The Parties shall maintain a system of inspection of manufacturers, exporters, importers, and wholesale and retail distributors of psychotropic substances and of medical and scientific institutions which use such sustances. They shall provide for inspections, which shall be made as frequently as they consider necessary, of the premises and of stocks and records.
REPORTS TO BE FURNISHED BY THE PARTIES
1. The Parties shall
furnish to the Secretary-General such information as the Commission may request as being
necessary for the performance of its functions, and in particular an annual report
regarding the working of the Convention in their territories including information on:
2. The Parties shall also notify the Secretary-General of the names and addresses of the governmental authorities referred to in sub-paragraph (f) of article 7, in article 12 and in paragraph 3 of article 13. Such information shall be made available to all Parties by the Secretary-General.
3. The Parties shall
furnish, as soon as possible after the event, a report to the Secretary-General in respect
of any case of illicit traffic in psychotropic substances or seizure from such illicit
traffic which they consider important because of:
4. The Parties shall
furnish to the Board annual statistical reports in accordance with forms prepared by the
The quantities manufactured which are referred to in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph do not include the quantities of preparations manufactured.
5. A Party shall furnish the Board, on its request, with supplementary statistical information relating to future periods on the quantities of any individual substance in Schedules III and IV exported to and imported from each country or region. That Party may request that the Board treat as confidential both its request for information and the information given under this paragraph.
6. The Parties shall furnish the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 4 in such a manner and by such dates as the Commission or the Board may request.
FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION
1. The Commission may consider all matters pertaining to the aims of this Convention and to the implementation of its provisions, and may make recommendations relating thereto.
2. The decisions of the Commission provided for in articles 2 and 3 shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Commission.
REPORTS OF THE BOARD
1. The Board shall prepare annual reports on its work containing an analysis of the statistical information at its disposal, and, in appropriate cases, an account of the explanations, if any, given by or required of Governments, together with any observations and recommendations which the Board desires to make. The Board may make such additional reports as it considers necessary. The reports shall be submitted to the Council through the Commission, which may make such comments as it sees fit.
2. The reports of the Board shall be communicated to the Parties and subsequently published by the Secretary-General. The Parties shall permit their unrestricted distribution.
MEASURES BY THE BOARD TO ENSURE THE EXECUTION
1. (a) If,
on the basis of its examination of information submitted by governments to the Board or of
information communicated by United Nations organs, the Board has reason to believe that
the aims of this Convention are being seriously endangered by reason of the failure of a
country or region to carry out the provisions of this Convention, the Board shall have the
right to ask for explanations from the Government of the country or region in
question. Subject to the right of the Board to call the attention of the Parties,
the Council and the Commission to the matter referred to in sub-paragraph (c)
below, it shall treat as confidential a request for information or an explanation by a
government under this sub-paragraph.
2. The Board, when calling the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to a matter in accordance with paragraph 1 (c), may, if it is satisfied that such a course is necessary, recommend to the Parties that they stop the export, import, or both, of particular psychotropic substances, from or to the country or region concerned, either for a designated period or until the Board shall be satisfied as to the situation in that country or region. The State concerned may bring the matter before the Council.
3. The Board shall have the right to publish a report on any matter dealt with under the provisions of this article, and communicate it to the Council, which shall forward it to all Parties. If the Board publishes in this report a decision taken under this article or any information relating thereto, it shall also publish therein the views of the Government concerned if the latter so requests.
4. If in any case a decision of the Board which is published under this article is not unanimous, the views of the minority shall be stated.
5. Any State shall be invited to be represented at a meeting of the Board at which a question directly interesting it is considered under this article.
6. Decisions of the Board under this article shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the whole number of the Board.
7. The provisions of the above paragraphs shall also apply if the Board has reason to believe that the aims of this Convention are being seriously endangered as a result of a decision taken by a Party under paragraph 7 of article 2.
MEASURES AGAINST THE ABUSE OF PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES
1. The Parties shall take all practicable measures for the prevention of abuse of psychotropic substances and for the early identification, treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of the persons involved, and shall co-ordinate their efforts to these ends.
2. The Parties shall as far as possible promote the training of personnel in the treatment, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of abusers of psychotropic substances.
3. The Parties shall assist persons whose work so requires to gain an understanding of the problems of abuse of psychotropic substances and of its prevention, and shall also promote such understanding among the general public if there is a risk that abuse of such substances will become widespread.
ACTION AGAiNST THE ILLICIT TRAFFIC
Having due regard to their
constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall:
Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall treat as a punishable offence,
when committed intentionally, any action contrary to a law or regulation adopted in
pursuance of its obligations under this Convention, and shall ensure that serious offences
shall be liable to adequate punishment, particularly by imprisonment or other penalty of
deprivation of liberty.
2. Subject to the constitutional limitations of a Party, its legal system and domestic law,
(b) It is desirable that the offences referred to in paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 (a) (ii) be included as extradition crimes in any extradition treaty which has been or may hereafter be concluded between any of the Parties, and, as between any of the Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty or on reciprocity, be recognized as extradition crimes; provided that extradition shall be granted in conformity with the law of the Party to which application is made, and that the Party shall have the right to refuse to effect the arrest or grant the extradition in cases where the competent authorities consider that the offence is not sufficiently serious.
3. Any psychotropic substance or other substance, as well as any equipment, used in or intended for the commission of any of the offences referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be liable to seizure and confiscation.
4. The provisions of this article shall be subject to the provisions of the domestic law of the Party concerned on questions of jurisdiction.
5. Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the offences to which it refers shall be defined, prosecuted and punished in conformity with the domestic law of a Party.
APPLICATION OF STRICTER CONTROL MEASURES THAN THOSE
A Party may adopt more strict or severe measures of control than those provided by this Convention if, in its opinion, such measures are desirable or necessary for the protection of the public health and welfare.
EXPENSES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANS INCURRED
The expenses of the Commission and the Board in carrying out their respective functions under this Convention shall be borne by the United Nations in such manner as shall be decided by the General Assembly. The Parties which are not Members of the United Nations shall contribute to these expenses such amounts as the General Assembly finds equitable and assesses from time to time after consultation with the Governments of these Parties.
PROCEDURE FOR ADMISSION, SIGNATURE, RATIFICATION AND ACCESSION
1. Members of the
United Nations, States not Members of the United Nations which are members of a
specialized agency of the United Nations or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or
Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and any other State invited
by the Council, may become Parties to this Convention:
2. The Convention shall be open for signature until 1 January 1972 inclusive. Thereafter it shall be open for accession.
3. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General.
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. The Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day after forty of the States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 25 have signed it without reservation of ratification or have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession.
2. For any other State signing without reservation of ratification, or depositing an instrument of ratification or accession after the last signature or deposit referred to in the preceding paragraph, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of its signature or deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.
The Convention shall apply to all non-metropolitan territories for the international relations of which any Party is responsible except where the previous consent of such a territory is required by the Constitution of the Party or of the territory concerned, or required by custom. In such a case the Party shall endeavour to secure the needed consent of the territory within the shortest period possible, and when the consent is obtained the Party shall notify the Secretary-General. The Convention shall apply to the territory or territories named in such a notification from the date of its receipt by the Secretary-General. In those cases where the previous consent of the non-metropolitan territory is not required, the Party concerned shall, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare the non-metropolitan territory or territories to which this Convention applies.
REGIONS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS CONVENTION
1. Any Party may notify the Secretary-General that, for the purposes of this Convention, its territory is divided into two or more regions, or that two or more of its regions are consolidated into a single region.
2. Two or more Parties may notify the Secretary-General that, as the result of the establishment of a customs union between them, those Parties constitute a region for the purposes of this Convention.
3. Any notification under paragraph 1 or 2 shall take effect on 1 January of the year following the year in which the notification was made.
1. After the expiry of two years from the date of the coming into force of this Convention any Party may, on its own behalf or on behalf of a territory for which it has international responsibility, and which has withdrawn its consent given in accordance with article 27, denounce this Convention by an instrument in writing deposited with the Secretary-General.
2. The denunciation, if received by the Secretary-General on or before the first day of July of any year, shall take effect on the first day of January of the succeeding year, and if received after the first day of July it shall take effect as if it had been received on or before the first day of July in the succeeding year.
3. The Convention shall be terminated if, as a result of denunciations made in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2, the conditions for its coming into force as laid down in paragraph 1 of article 26 cease to exist.
1. Any Party may
propose an amendment to this Convention. The text of any such amendment and the
reasons therefor shall be communicated to the Secretary-General, who shall communicate
them to the Parties and to the Council. The Council may decide either:
2. If a proposed amendment circulated under paragraph 1 (b) has not been rejected by any Party within eighteen months after it has been circulated, it shall thereupon enter into force. If however a proposed amendment is rejected by any Party, the Council may decide, in the light of comments received from Parties, whether a conference shall be called to consider such amendment.
1. If there should arise between two or more Parties a dispute relating to the interpretation or application of this Convention, the said Parties shall consult together with a view to the settlement of the dispute by negotiation, investigation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, recourse to regional bodies, judicial process or other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. Any such dispute which cannot be settled in the manner prescribed shall be referred, at the request of any one of the parties to the dispute, to the International Court of Justice for decision.
1. No reservation other than those made in accordance with paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the present article shall be permitted.
2. Any State may at the
time of signature, ratification or accession make reservations in respect of the following
provisions of the present Convention:
3. A State which desires to become a Party but wishes to be authorized to make reservations other than those made in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 4 may inform the Secretary-General of such intention. Unless by the end of twelve months after the date of the Secretary-General's communication of the reservation concerned, this reservation has been objected to by one third of the States that have signed without reservation of ratification, ratified or acceded to this Convention before the end of that period, it shall be deemed to be permitted, it being understood however that States which have objected to the reservation need not assume towards the reserving State any legal obligation under this Convention which is affected by the reservation.
4. A State on whose territory there are plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances from among those in Schedule I and which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites, may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, make reservations concerning these plants, in respect of the provisions of article 7, except for the provisions relating to international trade.
5. A State which has made reservations may at any time by notification in writing to the Secretary-General withdraw all or part of its reservations.
The Secretary-General shall
notify to all the States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 25:
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Convention on behalf of their respective Governments.
DONE at Vienna, this twenty-first day of February one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one, in a single copy in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each being equally authentic. The Convention shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit certified true copies thereof to all the Members of the United Nations and to the other States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 25.
Schaffer Library of Drug Policy
Major Studies of Drug and Drug Policy
Marihuana, A Signal of Misunderstanding - The Report of the US National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
Licit and Illicit Drugs
Short History of the Marijuana Laws
The Drug Hang-Up
Congressional Transcripts of the Hearings for the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937
Frequently Asked Questions About Drugs
Basic Facts About the Drug War
Charts and Graphs about Drugs
Information on Alcohol
Guide to Heroin - Frequently Asked Questions About Heroin
LSD, Mescaline, and Psychedelics
Drugs and Driving
Children and Drugs
Drug Abuse Treatment Resource List
American Society for Action on Pain
Let Us Pay Taxes
Marijuana Business News
Reefer Madness Collection
Medical Marijuana Throughout History
Drug Legalization Debate
Legal History of American Marijuana Prohibition
Marijuana, the First 12,000 Years
DEA Ruling on Medical Marijuana
Legal References on Drugs
GAO Documents on Drugs
Response to the Drug Enforcement Agency
|Drug Information Articles|
Taking a drug test:
How To Pass A Drug Test
Beat Drug Test
Pass Drug Test
Drug Screening Tests
Drug Addiction Treatment