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Medical Marijuana - Master Reference

Note: This page was prepared for the November, 1996 election. Some of the external links may be out of date.

In support of the Californians for Compassionate Use initiative and as a resource to all who are interested in the medical marijuana issue, we have established this unified page of medical marijuana resources on the Internet. If you are aware of any research on medical marijuana - pro, con, or indifferent - which is on the Internet but not listed here, please send an e-mail to: cliff_schaffer@yahoo.com

References marked with are the references which we feel are most important to understanding the medical marijuana issue.

Do you think the media ought to know about this page? See our Media Contact Lists, for the names and addresses of newspapers, television, and radio stations in your area. Write them a letter today.

My Question:

In all my study and review of the information regarding this issue, one question keeps coming back to me. Let's assume - for the sake of argument - that marijuana has no medical value whatsoever, despite the fact that it has a several thousand year history of medical use and that a prescription drug is made from its primary active ingredient. Let's assume - for the sake of argument - that all these medical marijuana patients are just fooling themselves.

Even in that case, what would we stand to gain as a society by punishing sick people and putting them through an already overloaded criminal justice system? Even if they are deluding themselves -- what benefit is there to prosecuting sick people?

Cannabis Research Library - A collection of medical research on cannabis

From Cliff Schaffer's site:

Historical Information

In order to properly understand the current medical marijuana issue, it is really necessary to understand the surprising history of marijuana and how the marijuana laws came to be. We recommend the following texts:

From the Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, 1972

History of the Non-Medical Use of Drugs in the United States - by Professor Charles Whitebread. This is a fascinating and highly entertaining 20-page summary of the history of the marijuana laws in the United States. Transcribed from a speech by Professor Whitebread before the 1995 California Judges Conference.

The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge: An Inquiry into the Legal History of American Marihuana Prohibition by Professors Richard J. Bonnie & Charles H. Whitebread, II, Virginia Law Review, Volume 56, October 1970 Number 6 -- This is the major research work from which Professor Whitebread drew the information for his speech above.

The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934 - relating to cannabis

For further background information, please refer to


Marijuana as Medicine - Assessing the Science Base - Full text of the report by the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, 1999

State Statutes Recognizing Marijuana's Medical Value

Statement of the American Public Health Association in favor of Medical Marijuana

Cannabis Therapeutic Research Program - Report to the California Legislature, Prepared by the Research Advisory Panel - 1989 -- The full text of the results of the State of California's investigation into the medical uses of marijuana.

A Criticial Review of the Research Literature Concerning Some Biological and Psychological Effects of Cannabis by Dr. Peter L. Nelson (1993). A critical review of the research literature concerning some biological and psychological effects of cannabis. In Advisory Committee on Illicit Drugs (Eds.), Cannabis and the law in Queensland: A discussion paper (pp. 113-152). Brisbane: Criminal Justice Commission of Queensland.

Cannabis Amotivational Syndrome and Personality Trait Absorption: A Review and Reconceptualization by Peter L. Nelson, Ph.D.

Personality Trait Absorption: An Exploratory Study of Opportunity and Capacity in Relation to Cannabis Use by Peter L. Nelson, Ph.D.

Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana -- by Leo E. Hollister, MD Veterans Administration Medical Center and Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California from PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS Copyright c 1986 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Marijuana and Immunity - by Leo E. Hollister, MD -- Journal of Psychoactive Drugs p159-163 Vol.24 Apr-Jun 1992

Medical Uses of Illicit Drugs by Lester Grinspoon and James B. Bakalar

Plaintiff's Reply Brief -- Ralph Seeley's successful lawsuit for his own medical marijuana.

Senate Joint Resolution No. 8 - The resolution which passed the California legislature in 1993, calling for the medical use of marijuana. This resolution was vetoed by Governor Pete Wilson because he says that allowing sick people to have medicine "sends the wrong message".

Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Experiences and Attitudes by Richard Doblin and Mark A. R. Kleiman

Psychiatric Aspects of Marijuana Intoxication -- Samuel Allentuck, MD, and Karl Bowman, MD

Therapeutic Application of Marijuana - Dr. Robert Walton.

An Incident in Kansas - A tale of the harassment meted out to a 100 percent legal medical marijuana user.

The health and psychological consequences of cannabis use - National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No. 25 - By the Australian Government

Marinol Facts -- The pharmaceutical facts about Marinol.

Marinol Advertising Brochure (Graphic files - approximately 250K each)

Breckenridge, Colorado endorses medical marijuana

Frisco, Colorado endorses medical marijuana

Full text of resolution proposed to the City of Bainbridge Island, Washington

Alameda County Supports Medical Marijuana

Santa Cruz County Measure A Marijuana For Medical Use Initiative -This measure was passed by over 75% of the vote.

Sonoma County Approves Medical Marijuana

Marijuana Smoking as Medicine, A Cruel Hoax by Gabriel G. Nahas, M.D. and Nicholas A. Pace, M.D.

Marihuana as Medicine: A Plea for Reconsideration by Lester Grinspoon, MD James B. Bakalar, JD Journal of the American medical Association, June, 1995

Marijuana Compassion Clubs by Tim Whitmire Associated Press, August 10, 1995

Information for Physicians -- Nausea and vomiting - from CancerNet from the National Cancer Institute's PDQ System -- Contains a discussion of nausea and marijuana.

References on Multiple Sclerosis and Marijuana

Editorial from USA Today supporting medical marijuana 7-18-96

Articles by Tod Mikuriya, MD

Tod Mikuriya, MD, is a psychiatrist and Former Director of Marijuana Research for the National Institute of Mental Health

Introduction from Marijuana: Medical Papers by Todd Mikuriya, M.D.

Cannabis as an Adjunctive Treatment for AIDS Related Illness. -- By Tod Mikuriya, M.D.

Cannabis as an Adjunctive Treatment for AIDS Related Illness. Part 2 By Tod Mikuriya, M.D.

Possible Therapeutic Cannabis Applications for Psychiatric Disorders by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Safe Use of Cannabis by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Consuming Cannabis Safely by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Medicinal Uses of Hemp Drugs - by Tod Mikuriya, M.D.,

Marijuana Medical Handbook by Tod Mikuriya, M.D.

Marijuana Addicts Anonymous by Lance B., submitted by Tod Mikuriya, M.D.

Marinol and Cannabis by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Chronic Migraine Headache: five cases successfully treated with Marinol and/or illicit cannabis. By Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Cannabis and Marinol in the treatment of Migraine Headache by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Toxic Effects of Marijuana by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

For New Users of Cannabis: The Reynolds Protocol:

Cannabis Medicinal Uses at a "Buyers" Club by Mikuriya, T.H.

Songs by Tod Mikuriya (At least he has a sense of humor!)

Vaporization of Cannabinoids: a Preferable Drug Delivery Route by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

Cannabis 1988 Old Drug, New Dangers, The Potency Debate, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol 20(1), Jan-Mar, 1988 pg 47. Mikuriya, Tod H. and Aldrich, Michael.

This is a summary of an article discussing the myth of the increase in marijuana potency over the last couple of decades. As this article and others have pointed out, the strongest forms of marijuana have been available since the dawn of recorded history. Readers are invited to make reference to the various historical documents below regarding the historical use of hashish.


This is an excellent summary of many of the questions regarding marijuana. It is very well-documented. Contributed by Christopher Reeve.

The Myth of Marijuana's Gateway Effect by John P. Morgan, M.D. and Lynn Zimmer, Ph.D. This is a good review of the myth that marijuana leads to harder drugs.

PHARMACOLOGY OF MARIJUANA: JUST ANOTHER SEDATIVE by Frederick H. Meyers, M.D., Professor of Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, Ca.

A Review of the Scientific Literature Re Amotivational Syndrome

This is an excellent synopsis of the information regarding the "amotivational syndrome" and marijuana. Complete with citations for further reference. Contributed by Brian of DRCNet.

Notes on Marijuana and the Amotivational Syndrome

The human toxicity of marijuana: a critique of a review by Nahas and Latour. This is an abstract of an article which reviewed the work of Dr. Gabriel Nahas regarding his claims about the dangers of marijuana.

Marijuana and the Human Brain - By John Gettman, with NORML

The Effects of Marijuana on Consciousness -- From: Altered States of Consciousness, edited by Charles T. Tart, Doubleday & Co., 1972, Chapter 22

Cannabis: the brain's other supplier by Rosie Mestel - reprinted from the New Scientist 31 July 1993 This is an article about natural chemicals in the brain which are very closely related to THC.

Chemical Constituents of Cannabis - Report of a Study by a Committee of the INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE, National Academy Press, Washington, DC 1982

From Carl Olsen's site:

DEA Judge Francis L. Young's ruling (September 6, 1988) on Medical Marijuana - The ruling of the Chief Administrative Law Judge of the DEA after hearing two years of testimony pro and con on the issue of medical use of marijuana. A must read.

1997 Iowa Legislative Survey

Iowans for Medical Marijuana

The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics

Patients Out of Time - Marijuana as Medicine

Jenks v. State, 582 So.2d 676 (Florida, June 13, 1991)

CBS Sixty Minutes ("Smoking to Live") (December 1, 1991)

Declaration of Dr. Daniel Spyker, Food and Drug Admin. (June 16, 1993)

National Center for Toxicological Research - Arkansas Times (September 16, 1993)

National Center for Toxicological Research - Published Journal Articles

Nat'l Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) rejects AIDS/marijuana study (April 19, 1995)

AIDS researcher, Dr. Donald Abrams, is critical of NIDA ruling (April 28, 1995)

San Jose Mercury News (May 14, 1995)

Journal of the American Medical Association (June 21, 1995)

Nat'l Institute on Drug Abuse Anti-Marijuana Conference (July 18, 1995)

Ralph Seeley v. The State of Washington (August 25, 1995)

New England Jounal of Medicine (Sept. 7, 1995)

American Public Health Association (November 1995)

H.R. 2618 - therapeutic use of marijuana (Nov. 10, 1995)

The Lancet (November 11, 1995)

The Boston Globe - Pot, a balm to some, faces new hurdle (Nov. 25, 1995)

Potential medical uses of Cannabis, by David W. Pate (December 1995)

State of Washington funds medical marijuana study (March 8, 1996)

Cannabidiol: The Wonder Drug of the 21st Century? (May 25, 1996)

From the MAPS Site:

The following are new as of September 6, 1995.

The following are new as of August 11, 1995.


From the Lindesmith Center Site

The Medical Marijuana Issue Among PWAS: Reports of Therapeutic Use and Attitudes Toward Legal Reform by Wesner, Ben. Working Paper No. 3, Working Paper Series, Drug Research Unit, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Minoa. June, 1996.

Marihuana as Medicine: A Plea for Reconsideration by Grinspoon, Lester, and James B. Bakalar. Editorial. Journal of the American Medical Association 273.23 (1995): 1875-76.

Therapeutic Potential and Medical Uses of Marijuana by Mikuriya, Tod.

The History of Cannabis by Grinspoon, Lester, and James B. Bakalar in Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine. [chapter 1] New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Club Medicine by Christie, Jim. Reason, April, 1996:54-57.

Out of Joint: The Case for Medicinal Marijuana by Hecht, Brian. The New Republic. 15 July 1991: 7-10.

From the AIDS Treatment News Archive

04/03/92 - Anti-Drug Politics Impede Medical Use of Marijuana
07/27/91 - Marijuana: Therapeutic Access Threatened
12/01/95 - California: Medical Marijuana Petition Drive Begins
08/07/92 - Medical Marijuana: Overwhelming Support at San Francisco Hearing
01/07/94 - Medical Marijuana: National Press Coverage, No News
12/01/95 - Medical Marijuana: 80% U.S. Voter Support
11/22/91 - Therapeutic Marijuana Initiative Approved by San Francisco Voters
08/05/94 - Medical Marijuana: 89 Percent Support
10/06/95 - California: Marijuana Compassionate Use Statewide Initiative
09/02/94 - California AIDS Legislation -- Action Alerts
06/16/95 - San Francisco: Medical Marijuana on Viacom Cable, June 20
08/05/94 - Interim AIDS Coordinator Announced
08/05/94 - Kaposi's Sarcoma -- Major Overview Published
09/29/95 - Drug Policy Reform: Ninth International Conference, October 18-21
12/23/91 - Announcements

From the High Times site:

The High Times Medical Marijuana Page

Mississipi and Colorado Nurses Associations Pass Medical Marijuana Resolutions by Al Byrne

The Battle for Medical Marijuana by Peter Gorman

Medical Marijuana Update 10-11-95 by Leslie Stackel

Medical Marijuana Bust May Spur Legal Challenge by Paul Derienzo

Marinol - The Little Synthetic That Couldn't by Elsa Scott

From HempBC (Hemp British Columbia)

Dutch Deport Medical Marijuana User

San Diego Medical Marijuana Activist Arrested In Ohio

From the DRCNet Site

Mother of Two Convicted for Medical Marijuana

A Medical Marijuana Victory - Ralph Seeley

From The Drug Watch International Site:

Just so you won't think that we have restricted this list just to the links which favor medical marijuana, here is some stuff about marijuana from the opposition. We invite you to compare their claims with the research on the other sites.

Marijuana (in general)

Drug Watch International's position paper on "Medical Marijuana" use.

Gabriel Nahas' paper on Hemp, Marijuana and the Law

"Marijuana as Medicine Refuted by NIH Scientists". Dr. Janet Lapey reports on recent findings from the National Institutes of Health. Published in the Best of IDEA, Illinois. Fall, 1993.

This article published in the Best of IDEA shows that no credible organization has supported Medical Marijuana use.

"Marijuana for AIDS Patients?...Think Again." From Drug Watch Oregon.

"GLAUCOMA. Is Marijuana a Safe and Effective Treatment?" From Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 1, No.1 February, 1994. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 1, No.2 July, 1994. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 1, No.3 October, 1994. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 2, No.1 January, 1995. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 2, No.2 March, 1995. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 2, No.3 June, 1995. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Marijuana Research Review. Volume 2, No.4 September, 1995. A publication of Drug Watch Oregon.

Susan Kaplin's paper on research used to block the UK "Royal Commission on Cannabis" May, 1994.

"MARIJUANA IS NOT MEDICINE. SOMEBODY HAD BETTER TELL YOUR DOCTOR!" by Dan Brookoff, M.D., Ph.D. This must read article gives the hard facts about medical marijuana use and enlightens readers about why some Harvard Medical School professors may have come out in favor of it.

"Mental fuzziness linked to marijuana", the Chicago Tribune reports.

The "shadow pushers" are the aging marijuana users and advocates who try to legitimize their drug of choice and perpetuate their crusade to legalize marijuana. They have embraced slick marketing and promotional techniques that target a new generation of potential marijuana advocates. A paper by Rosanna Creighton.

From the Massachusetts Cannabis Reform Coalition, Inc

Federal Medical Marijuana Attracts Bi-Partisan Support; First Two Republicans Sign On To Bill -- NORML News Service Story

Massachusetts Medical Marijuana Legislation Progresses - 1-96

From Cures Not Wars

NYC Medical Marijuana Buyers Club Prosecuted by D.A.

Support the new Medical Marijuana Bill in Congress - HR 2618

From the The Scientist - U. of Pennsylvania

Trials Of Marijuana's Medical Potential Languish As Government Just Says No by Peter Gwynne

Links to other sources of information

George McMahon, One of eight patients in the federal medical marijuana program

NORML of Canada Medical Marijuana Page

How to Use Medical Marijuana - From the Orange County Buyer's Club

Ron Shaw's Home Page - A Medical Marijuana User

Marijuana Policy Project

Last Update: August 04, 2008

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