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|The Traffic in Narcotics by Harry Anslinger|
H. J. ANSLINGER
United States Commissioner of Narcotics
WILLIAM F. TOMPKINS
United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey Former Chairman, Legislative Commission to Study Narcotics, General Assembly of New Jersey
WHAT THE UNIFORM NARCOTIC DRUG
1. Aid the United States in carrying out its international obligations under the Hague Convention.
2. Arrest the growth and spread of the traffic in illicit narcotics by replacing the present inadequate and conflicting state laws.
3. Utilize and call in to full exercise the powers that reside in the states alone, permitting prosecution in such cases as illegal possession, over which the Federal courts have no jurisdiction.
4. Make a necessary division of responsibility in narcotic law enforcement between the Federal and the several state governments, if the general welfare of the citizens of each state is to be maintained.
5. Coordinate enforcement machinery through mandatory cooperation of state with Federal officers.
6. Prohibit sales or transfers of narcotic drugs except under state licenses, to include manufacturers and wholesalers; a requirement solely within the power of the states.
7. Prohibit production of narcotic drugs within state borders, except by specific license and under strict regulation.
8. Include within the definition of narcotic drugs those narcotics which may be prepared synthetically (such as tropococaine) as well as those directly derived from opium and coca leaves.
9. Provide for revocation of licenses for violations of the state
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narcotic law, direct control of this phase of enforcement being beyond the power of the Federal Government.
10. Strengthen enforcement by making admissible as evidence what are normally privileged communications, when they are used to procure unlawfully a narcotic drug.
11. Require the return of the unused portion of a narcotic drug to the practitioner from whom received, when no longer required as a medicine by the patient.
12. Permit of prosecution In all cases of persons obtaining narcotic drugs by fraud or deceit, and particularly in those cases where narcotics are obtained by means of false or altered prescriptions. These cases are difficult, if not impossible, to handle satisfactorily under the present Federal law.
UNIFORM NARCOTIC DRUG ACT
THE UNIFORM NARCOTIC DRUG ACT, ADOPTED BY THE NATIONAL Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, in 1932, is an act which has received the study of the committee in charge and many experts for the past five years.
It is difficult for one not familiar with the subject to understand how many different organizations and associations have an interest in the provisions of this act. The fact was recognized in drafting that a social problem, as well as an economic question, was involved, and that the act must protect those using narcotic drugs legally, as well as provide punishment for those using such drugs illegally. Manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, apothecaries, doctors, dentists, nurses, internes, and attendants had to be protected in their legitimate use of the substances known as narcotic drugs. The idea was never absent, however, that those who were protected in the use of drugs by the act might in some cases use such drugs illegally. The committee also had to learn something of the medical effects of opium, coca leaves, cannabis, and their derivatives, in order better to frame an act that would be enforceable.
Provisions in regard to addiction and search and seizure were omitted from this act, so that each state might provide its own
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method for the care and cure of addicts, and methods by which drugs used in illegal traffic might be forfeited. In consideration of the subject of addiction, it was evident that each state, in order to care for its addicts, must expend quite a large amount of money for hospital service. The subject of addiction and its cure, however, is so important that no state should delay in making immediate and thorough study of this great social problem. As each state now has in its laws some provisions for search, seizure and forfeiture, it was deemed best that each state provide such methods for search, seizure and forfeiture as would best harmonize with its constitution and laws already enacted.
The committee took into consideration the fact that the federal government had already passed the Harrison Act and the Federal Import and Export Act. Many persons have assumed that the Harrison Act was all that was necessary. The Harrison Act, however, is a revenue-producing act, and while it provides penalties for violation, it does not give the states themselves authority to exercise police power in regard to seizure of drugs used in illicit trade, or in regard to punishment of those responsible therefor. Every provision which would cause duplication of records was omitted from the act, and a section was inserted providing against double jeopardy.
Great care had to be exercised not to violate the provisions of any treaties between the United States and foreign countries in regard to traffic in narcotic drugs.
The demand for uniform state legislation on this subject was very extensive. It was argued that the traffic in narcotic drugs should have the same safeguards and the same regulation in all of the states. This act is recommended to the states for that purpose.
UNIFORM NARCOTIC DRUG ACT
AN ACT DEFINING AND RELATING TO NARCOTIC DRUGS AND
TO MAKE UNIFORM THE LAW WITH REFERENCE
[Note: Title should be worded to comply with the requirements of the constitution and laws of the State adopting.]
Be it enacted. [Insert here the proper enacting clause for the State.]
SECTION 1. [Definitions.] The following words and phrases, as used
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in this act, shall have the following meanings, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Person" includes any corporation, association, co-partnership, or one or more individuals.
(2) "Physician" means a person authorized by law to practice medicine in this state and any other person authorized by law to treat sick and injured human beings in this state and to use narcotic drugs in connection with such treatment.
(3) "Dentist" means a person authorized by law to practice dentistry in this state.
(4) "Veterinarian' means a person authorized by law to practice veterinary medicine in this state.
(5) "Manufacturer" means a person who by compounding, mixing, cultivating, growing, or other process, produces or prepares narcotic drugs, but does not include an apothecary who compounds narcotic drugs to be sold or dispensed on prescriptions.
(6) "Wholesaler" means a person who supplies narcotic drugs that he himself has not produced nor prepared, on official written orders, but not on prescriptions.
(7) "Apothecary' means a licensed pharmacist as defined by the laws of this state and, where the context so requires, the owner of a store or other place of business where narcotic drugs are compounded or dispensed by a licensed pharmacist; but nothing in this act shall be construed as conferring on a person who is not registered nor licensed as a pharmacist any authority, right, or privilege, that is not granted to him by the pharmacy laws of this state.
(8) "Hospital" means an institution for the care and treatment of the sick and injured, approved by [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board] as proper to be entrusted with the custody of narcotic drugs and the professional use of narcotic drugs under the direction of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.
(9) "Laboratory" means a laboratory approved by [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board] as proper to be entrusted with the custody of narcotic drugs and the use of narcotic drugs for scientific and medical purposes and for purposes of instruction.
(10) "Sale" includes barter, exchange, or gift, or offer therefor, and each such transaction made by any person, whether as principal, proprietor, agent, servant, or employee.
(11) "Coca leaves" includes cocaine and any compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of coca leaves, except
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derivatives of coca leaves which do not contain cocaine, ecgonine, or substances from which cocaine or ecgonine may be synthesized or made.
(12) "Opium" includes morphine, codeine, and heroin, and any compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of opium, but does not include apomorpbine or any of its salts.
(13) "Cannabis" includes all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds, or resin; but shall not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.
(14) "Narcotic drugs" means coca leaves, opium, cannabis, and every other substance neither chemically nor physically distinguishable from them; any other drugs to which the Federal laws relating to narcotic drugs may now apply; and any drug found by the (State Commissioner of Health or other competent state officer) after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing, to have an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or cocaine, from the date of publication of such finding by said (State Commissioner of Health or other competent state officer).
(15) "Federal Narcotic Laws" means the laws of the United States relating to opium, coca leaves, and other narcotic drugs.
(16) "Official written order" means an order written on a form provided for that purpose by the United States Commissioner of Narcotics, under any laws of the United States making provision therefor, if such order forms are authorized and required by federal law, and if no such order form is provided, then on an official form provided for that purpose by [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board.]
(17) "Dispense" includes distribute, leave with, give away, dispose of, or deliver.
(18) "Registry number" means the number assigned to each person registered under the Federal Narcotic Laws.
SECTION 2. [Acts Prohibited.] It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, possess, have under his control, sell, prescribe, administer,
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dispense, or compound any narcotic drug, except as authorized in this act.
SECTION 3. [Manufacturers and Wholesalers.] No person shall manufacture, compound, mix, cultivate, grow, or by any other process produce or prepare narcotic drugs, and no person as a wholesaler shall supply the same, without having first obtained a license so to do from the [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board.]
SECTION 4. [Qualification for Licenses.] No license shall be issued under the foregoing section unless and until the applicant therefor has furnished proof satisfactory to [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board.]
(a) That the applicant is of good moral character or, if the applicant be an association or corporation, that the managing officers are of good moral character.
(b) That the applicant is equipped as to land, buildings, and paraphernalia properly to carry on the business described in his application.
No license shall be granted to any person who has within five years been convicted of a willful violation of any law of the United States, or of any state, relating to opium, coca leaves, or other narcotic drugs, or to any person who is a narcotic drug addict.
The [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board] may suspend or revoke any license for cause.
SECTION 5. [Sale on Written Orders.]
(1) A duly licensed manufacturer or wholesaler may sell and dispense narcotic drugs to any of the following persons, but only on official written orders:
a) To a manufacturer, wholesaler, or apothecary.
b) To a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.
c) To a person in charge of a hospital, but only for use by or in that hospital.
d) To a person in charge of a laboratory, but only for use in that laboratory for scientific and medical purposes.
(2) A duly licensed manufacturer or wholesaler may sell narcotic drugs to any of the following persons:
a) On a special written order accompanied by a certificate of exemption, as required by the Federal Narcotic Laws, to a person in the employ of the United States Government or of any state, territorial,
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district, county, municipal, or insular government, purchasing, receiving, possessing, or dispensing narcotic drugs by reason of his official duties.
b) To a master of a ship or a person in charge of any aircraft upon which no physician is regularly employed, or to a physician or surgeon duly licensed in some State, Territory, or the District of Columbia to practice his profession, or to a retired commissioned medical officer of the United States Army, Navy, or Public Health Service employed upon such ship or aircraft, for the actual medical needs of persons on board such ship or aircraft, or to a physician, surgeon, or retired commissioned medical officer of the United States Army, Navy, or Public Health Service employed upon such ship or aircraft when not in port. Provided: Such narcotic drugs shall be sold to the master of such ship or person in charge of such aircraft only in pursuance of a special order form approved by a commissioned medical officer or acting assistant surgeon of the United States Public Health Service.
c) To a person in a foreign country if the provisions of the Federal Narcotic Laws are complied with.
(3) [Use of Official Written Orders.] An official written order for any narcotic drug shall be signed in duplicate by the person giving said order or by his duly authorized agent. The original shall be presented to the person who sells or dispenses the narcotic drug or drugs named therein. In event of the acceptance of such order by said person, each party to the transaction shall preserve his copy of such order for a period of two years in such a way as to be readily accessible for inspection by any public officer or employee engaged in the enforcement of this act. It shall be deemed a compliance with this subsection if the parties to the transaction have complied with the Federal Narcotic Laws, respecting the requirements governing the use of order forms.
(4) [Possession Lawful.] Possession of or control of narcotic drugs obtained as authorized by this section shall be lawful if in the regular course of business, occupation, profession, employment, or duty of the possessor.
(5) A person in charge of a hospital or of a laboratory, or in the employ of this state or of any other state, or of any political subdivision thereof, or a master of a ship or a person in charge of any aircraft upon which no physician is regularly employed, or a physician or surgeon duly licensed in some State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, to practice his profession, or a retired commissioned medical officer of the United States Army, Navy, or Public Health Service
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employed upon such ship or aircraft, who obtains narcotic drugs under the provisions of this section or otherwise, shall not administer, nor dispense, nor otherwise use such drugs, within this state, except within the scope of his employment or official duty, and then only for scientific or medicinal purposes and subject to the provisions of this act.
SECTION 6. [Sales by Apothecaries.]
(1) An apothecary, in good faith, may sell and dispense narcotic drugs to any person upon a written prescription of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian, dated and signed by the person prescribing on the day when issued and bearing the full name and address of the patient for whom, or of the owner of the animal for which, the drug is dispensed, and the full name, address, and registry number under the Federal Narcotic Laws of the person prescribing, if he is required by those laws to be so registered. If the prescription be for an animal, it shall state the species of animal for which the drug is prescribed. The person filling the prescription shall write the date of filling and his own signature on the face of the prescription. The prescription shall be retained on file by the proprietor of the pharmacy in which it is filled for a period of two years, so as to be readily accessible for inspection by any public officer or employee engaged in the enforcement of this act. The prescription shall not be refilled.
(2) The legal owner of any stock of narcotic drugs in a pharmacy, upon discontinuance of dealing in said drugs, may sell said stock to a manufacturer, wholesaler, or apothecary, but only on an official written order.
(3) An apothecary, only upon an official written order, may sell to a physician, dentist, or veterinarian, in quantities not exceeding one ounce at any one time, aqueous or oleaginous solutions of which the content of narcotic drugs does not exceed a proportion greater than twenty percent of the complete solution, to be used for medical purposes.
SECTION 7. [Professional Use of Narcotic Drugs.]
(1) [Physicians and Dentists.] A physician or a dentist, in good faith and in the course of his professional practice only, may prescribe, administer, and dispense narcotic drugs, or be may cause the same to be administered by a nurse or interne under his direction and supervision.
(2) [Veterinarians.] A veterinarian, in good faith and in the course of his professional practice only, and not for use by a human being,
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may prescribe, administer, and dispense narcotic drugs, and he may cause them to be administered by an assistant or orderly under his direction and supervision.
(3) [Return of Unused Drugs.] Any person who has obtained from a physician, dentist, or veterinarian any narcotic drug for administration to a patient during the absence of such physician, dentist, or veterinarian, shall return to such physician, dentist, or veterinarian any unused portion of such drug, when it is no longer required by the patient.
SECTION 8. [Preparations exempted.] Except as otherwise in this act specifically provided, this act shall not apply to the following cases:
Administering, dispensing, or selling at retail of any medicinal preparation that contains in one fluid ounce, or if a solid or semi-solid preparation, in one avoirdupois ounce, not more than one grain of codeine or of any of its salts, or not more than 1/6 grain of dihydrocodeinone or any of its salt.
The exemption authorized by this section shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) that the medicinal preparation administered, dispensed, or sold, shall contain, in addition to the narcotic drug in it, some drug or drugs conferring upon it medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone; and (2) that such preparation shall be administered, dispensed, and sold in good faith as a medicine, and not for the purpose of evading the provisions of this act.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the quantity of codeine, dibydrocodeinone or any of their salts that may be prescribed, administered, dispensed, or sold, to any person or for the use of any person or animal, when it is prescribed, administered, dispensed, or sold, in compliance with the general provisions of this act.
SECTION 9. [Record to Be Kept.]
(1) [Physicians, Dentists, Veterinarians, and Other Authorized Persons.] Every physician, dentist, veterinarian, or other person who is authorized to administer or professionally use narcotic drugs, shall keep a record of such drugs received by him, and a record of all such drugs administered, dispensed, or professionally used by him otherwise than by prescription. It shall, however, be deemed a sufficient compliance with this subsection if any such person using small quantities of solutions or other preparations of such drugs for local application, shall keep a record of the quantity, character, and potency of such solutions or other preparations purchased or made up by him, and of the dates when purchased or made up, without keeping a
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record of the amount of such solution or other preparation applied by him to individual patients.
Provided, That no record need be kept of narcotic drugs administered, dispensed, or professionally used in the treatment of any one patient, when the amount administered, dispensed, or professionally used for that purpose does not exceed in any forty-eight consecutive hours, (a) four grains of opium, or (b) one-half of a grain of morphine or of any of its salts, or (c) two grains of codeine or of any of its salts, or (d) one-fourth of a grain of heroin or of any of its salts, or (e) a quantity of any other narcotic drug or any combination of narcotic drugs that does not exceed in pharmacologic potency any one of the drugs named above in the quantity stated.
(2) [Manufacturers and Wholesalers.] Manufacturers and wholesalers shall keep records of all narcotic drugs compounded, mixed, cultivated, grown, or by any other process produced or prepared, and of all narcotic drugs received and disposed of by them, in accordance with the provisions of subsection 5 of this section.
(3) [Apothecaries.] Apothecaries shall keep records of all narcotic drugs received and disposed of by them, in accordance with the provisions of subsection 5 of this section.
(4) [Vendors of Exempted Preparations.] Every person who purchases for resale, or who sells narcotic drug preparations exempted by Section 8 of this act, shall keep a record showing the quantities and kinds thereof received and sold, or disposed of otherwise, in accordance with the provisions of subsection 5 of this section.
(5) [Form and Preservation of Records.] The form of records shall be prescribed by the [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board.] The record of narcotic drugs received shall in every case show the date of receipt, the name and address of the person from whom received, and the kind and quantity of drugs received; the kind and quantity of narcotic drugs produced or removed from process of manufacture, and the date of such production or removal from process of manufacture; and the record shall in every case show the proportion of morphine, cocaine, or ecgonine contained in or producible from crude opium or coca leaves received or produced and the proportion of resin contained in or producible from the plant Cannabis sativa L., received or produced. The record of all narcotic drugs sold, administered, dispensed, or otherwise disposed of, shall show the date of selling, administering, or dispensing, the name and address of the person to whom, or for whose use, or the owner and species of animal for which the drugs were sold, administered or dispensed,
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and the kind and quantity of drugs. Every such record shall be kept for a period of two years from the date of the transaction recorded. The keeping of a record required by or under the Federal Narcotic Laws, containing substantially the same information as is
specified above, shall constitute compliance with this section, except that every such record shall contain a detailed list of narcotic drugs
lost, destroyed, or stolen, if any, the kind and quantity of such drugs, and the date of the discovery of such loss, destruction, or theft.
SECTION 10. [Labels.]
(1) Whenever a manufacturer sells or dispenses a narcotic drug, and whenever a wholesaler sells or dispenses a narcotic drug in a package prepared by him, he shall securely affix to each package in which that drug is contained a label showing in legible English the name and address of the vendor and the quantity, kind, and form of narcotic drug contained therein. No person, except an apothecary for the purpose of filling a prescription under this act, shall alter, deface, or remove any label so affixed.
(2) Whenever an apothecary sells or dispenses any narcotic drug on a prescription issued by a physician, dentist, or veterinarian, he shall affix to the container in which such drug is sold or dispensed, a label showing his own name, address, and registry number, or the name, address, and registry number of the apothecary for whom he is lawfully acting; the name and address of the patient or, if the patient is an animal, the name and address of the owner of the animal and the species of the animal; the name, address, and registry number of the physician, dentist, or veterinarian, by whom the prescription was written, and such directions as may be stated on the prescription. No person shall alter, deface, or remove any label so affixed.
SECTION 11. [Authorized Possession of Narcotic Drugs by Individuals.] A person to whom or for whose use any narcotic drug has been prescribed, sold, or dispensed, by a physician, dentist, apothecary, or other person authorized under the provisions of Section 5 of this act, and the owner of any animal for which any such drug has been prescribed, sold, or dispensed, by a veterinarian, may lawfully possess if only in the container in which it was delivered to him by the person selling or dispensing the same.
Note: It is recommended by the committee that each State provide its own method of search, seizure, and forfeiture, of narcotic drugs.
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SECTION 12. [Persons and Corporations Exempted.]
The provisions of this act restricting the possession and having control of narcotic drugs shall not apply to common carriers or to warehousemen, while engaged in lawfully transporting or storing such drugs, or to any employee of the same acting within the scope of his employment; or to public officers or their employees in the performance of their official duties requiring possession or control of narcotic drugs; or to temporary incidental possession by employees or agents of persons lawfully entitled to possession, or by persons whose possession is for the purpose of aiding public officers in performing their official duties.
SECTION 13. [Common Nuisances.] Any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling house, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or any place whatever, which is resorted to by narcotic drug addicts for the purpose of using narcotic drugs or which is used for the illegal keeping or selling of the same, shall be deemed a common nuisance. No person shall keep or maintain such a common nuisance.
SECTION 14. [Narcotic Drugs to be Delivered to State Official, Etc.] All narcotic drugs, the lawful possession of which is not established or the title to which cannot be ascertained, which have come into the custody of a peace officer, shall be forfeited, and disposed of as follows:
a) Except as in this section otherwise provided, the court or magistrate having jurisdiction shall order such narcotic drugs forfeited and destroyed. A record of the place where said drugs were seized, of the kinds and quantities of drugs so destroyed, and of the time, place, and manner of destruction, shall be kept, and a return under oath, reporting said destruction, shall be made to the court or magistrate and to the United States Commissioner of Narcotics, by the officer who destroys them.
b) Upon written application by the State [Commissioner of Public Health], the court or magistrate by whom the forfeiture of narcotic drugs has been decreed may order the delivery of any of them, except heroin and its salts and derivatives, to said State [Commissioner of Public Health], for distribution or destruction, as hereinafter provided.
c) Upon application by any hospital within this State, not operated for private gain, the State [Commissioner of Public Health] may in his discretion deliver any narcotic drugs that have come into his custody by authority of this section to the applicant for medicinal use. The
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State [Commission of Public Health] may from time to time deliver excess stocks of such narcotic drugs to the United States Commissioner of Narcotics, or may destroy the same.
d) The State [Commissioner of Public Health] shall keep a full and complete record of all drugs received and of all drugs disposed of, showing the exact kinds, quantities, and forms of such drugs; the persons from whom received and to whom delivered; by whose authority received, delivered, and destroyed; and the dates of the receipt, disposal, or destruction, which record shall be open to inspection by all Federal or State officers charged with the enforcement of Federal and State narcotic laws.
SECTION 15. [Notice of Conviction to Be Sent to Licensing Board.] On the conviction of any person of the violation of any provision of this act, a copy of the judgment and sentence, and of the opinion of the court or magistrate, if any opinion be filed, shall be sent by the clerk of the court, or by the magistrate, to the board or officer, if any, by whom the convicted defendant has been licensed or registered to practice his profession or to carry on his business. On the conviction of any such person, the court may, in its discretion, suspend or revoke the license or registration of the convicted defendant to practice his
profession or to carry on his business. On the application of any person whose license or registration has been suspended or revoked, and upon proper showing and for good cause, said board or officer may reinstate such license or registration.
SECTION 16. [Records, Confidential.] Prescriptions, orders and records, required by this act, and stocks of narcotic drugs, shall be open
for inspection only to federal, state, county, and municipal officers, whose duty it is to enforce the laws of this state or of the United States relating to narcotic drugs. No officer having knowledge by virtue of his office of any such prescription, order, or record shall divulge such knowledge, except in connection with a prosecution or proceeding in court or before a licensing or registration board or officer, to which prosecution or proceeding the person to whom such prescriptions, orders, or records relate is a party.
SECTION 17. [Fraud or Deceit.]
(1) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain a narcotic drug, or procure or attempt to procure the administration of a narcotic drug, (a) by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, or subterfuge; or (b) by the forgery or alteration of a prescription or of any written order; or
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(c) by the concealment of a material fact; or (d) by the use of a false name or the giving of a false address.
(2) Information communicated to a physician in an effort unlawfully to procure a narcotic drug, or unlawfully to procure the administration of any such drug, shall not be deemed a privileged communication.
(3) No person shall wilfully make a false statement in any prescription, order, report, or record, required by this act.
(4) No person shall, for the purpose of obtaining a narcotic drug, falsely assume the title of, or represent himself to be, a manufacturer, wholesaler, apothecary, physician, dentist, veterinarian, or other authorized person.
(5) No person shall make or utter any false or forged prescription or false or forged written order.
(6) No person shall affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing narcotic drugs.
(7) The provisions of this section shall apply to all transactions relating to narcotic drugs under the provisions of Section 8 of this act, in the same way as they apply to transactions under all other sections.
SECTION 18. [Exceptions and Exemptions Not Required to be Negatived.] In any complaint, information, or indictment, and in any action or proceeding brought for the enforcement of any provision of this act, it shall not be necessary to negative any exception, excuse, proviso, or exemption, contained in this act, and the burden of proof of any such exception, excuse, proviso or exemption, shall be upon the defendant.
SECTION 19. [Enforcement and Cooperation.] It is hereby made the duty of the [Insert here proper official designation of state officer or board], its officers, agents, inspectors, and representatives, and of all peace officers within the state, and of all county attorneys, to enforce all provisions of this act, except those specifically delegated, and to cooperate with all agencies charged with the enforcement of the laws of the United States, of this state, and of all other states, relating to narcotic drugs.
SECTION 20. [Penalties.] * [Proposed Amendment to Penalty Provisions of the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act.]
Whoever violates any provision of this act shall upon conviction be
* This penalty provision has been passed by West Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, Alabama, Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and New Jersey.
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fined not more than ($ ..) and be imprisoned not less than two or more than five years. For a second offense, or if, in case of a first conviction of violation of any provision of this act, the offender shall previously have been convicted of any violation of the laws of the United States or of any other state, territory or district relating to narcotic drugs or marihuana, the offender shall be fined not more than ($ ..) and be imprisoned not less than five or more than ten years. For a third or subsequent offense, or if the offender shall previously have been convicted two or more times in the aggregate of any violation of the law of the United States or of any other state, territory or district relating to narcotic drugs or marihuana, the offender shall be fined not more than ($ and be imprisoned not less than ten or more than twenty years.
Except in the case of conviction for a first offense for violation of the provisions of this act, the imposition or execution of sentence shall not be suspended and probation or parole shall not be granted until the minimum imprisonment herein provided for the offense shall have been served.
SECTION 21. [Effect of Acquittal or Conviction under Federal Narcotic Laws.] No person shall be prosecuted for a violation of any provision of this act if such person has been acquitted or convicted under the Federal Narcotic Laws of the same act or omission which, it is alleged, constitutes a violation of this act.
SECTION 22. [Constitutionality.] If any provision of this act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the act which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this act are declared to be severable.
SECTION 23. [Interpretation.] This act shall be so interpreted and construed as to effectuate its general purpose, to make uniform the laws of those states which enact it.
SECTION 24. [Inconsistent Laws Repealed.] All acts or parts of acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed.
SECTION 25. [Name of Act.] This act may be cited as the Uniform Narcotic Drug Act.
SECTION 26. [Time of Taking Effect.] This act shall take effect [Insert here statement of time when the act is to take effect.]
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