Own your ow legal marijuana business
Your guide to making money in the multi-billion dollar marijuana industry
American Society for Action on Pain

Author: Krames-E-S. Lanning-R-M.

Title: Intrathecal infusional analgesia for nonmalignant pain: analgesic efficacy of intrathecal opioid with or without bupivacaine.

Source: J-Pain-Symptom-Manage. 1993 Nov. 8(8). P 539-48.


Abstract: We report on the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal infusions of opioids alone or in combination with bupivacaine in 16 nonmalignant pain patients with implanted pumps. Three patients had nociceptive pain, five had neuropathic pain, and 8 had mixed pain syndromes. Infusional therapy was delivered over a combined monthly total of 445 mo of therapy (mean, 27.8 mo). Dose requirements appeared to be stable with a mean dose increase of 0.26 mg/mo. Bupivacaine was added to the opioid to enhance pain control in 13 patients who received combination therapy for an average of 11.7 mo/patient. Thirteen patients (81%) reported good to excellent results with opioid alone or opioid combined with bupivacaine. The addition of bupivacaine improved analgesia in two of three patients with nociceptive pain (66.7%), compared to eight of ten patients with a pure or mixed neuropathic component to their pain (80%). We conclude that intrathecal opioids alone or in combination with bupivacaine are efficacious for the treatment of nonmalignant pain states and are relatively free of significant side effects or tolerance.