Own your ow legal marijuana business
Your guide to making money in the multi-billion dollar marijuana industry
American Society for Action on Pain

UI - 000157

AU - Rothman RB

TI - A review of the role of anti-opioid peptides in morphine tolerance and dependence. [Review]

AB - Studies on the mechanisms of tolerance and dependence have mostly focused on changes at the

receptor level. These experiments, conducted with model systems ranging from clonal cell lines to whole

animals, have identified a number of important adaptive

mechanisms which occur at the receptor level. However, none of these adaptive mechanisms can completely

account for the phenomena which serve to define the state of morphine tolerance and dependence, especially

the observation that as an animal becomes more tolerant to morphine, less naloxone is required to trigger

withdrawal. The data reviewed in this paper provide strong support for the hypothesis that the brain

synthesizes and secretes neuropeptides which act as part of a homeostatic system to attenuate the effects of

morphine and endogenous opioid peptides. According to this model, administration of morphine releases

anti-opioid peptides (AOP), which then attenuate the effects of morphine. As more morphine is given, more

AOP are released, thereby producing tolerance to the effects of morphine. Cessation of morphine

administration, or administration of naloxone, produces a relative excess of anti-opioid, which is in part

responsible for the withdrawal syndrome. Since endogenous and exogenous antagonists might together

produce synergistic effects, less naloxone might be required to trigger withdrawal in the presence of higher

levels of AOPs. Although the study of AOP is in its infancy, a deeper understanding of the central nervous

system (CNS) anti-opioid systems may lead to new treatments for chronic pain, substance abuse, and

psychiatric disorders. [References: 114]

SO - Synapse 1992;12:129-13