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Historical References
Marijuana, the First 12,000 Years

Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years


1. K. Chang, The Archaeology of Ancient China (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), pp. 111-12; C.T. Kung, Archeology in China (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1959), 1:131.

2. H. Li, "The Origin and Use of Cannabis in Eastern Asia: Their Linguistic Cultural Implications," in Cannabis and Culture, ed. V. Rubin (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), p.54.

3. H. Li, "An Archaeological and Historical Account of Cannabis in China," Economic Botany 28 (1974); 437-8.

4. M.D. Merlin, Man and Marijuana (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickenson University Press, 1968), p. 80.

5. Merlin, Man and Marijuana, p. 81.

6. Ibid.

7. Quoted in E.H. Schafer, The Golden Peaches of Samarkand (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963), p. 195.

8. Li, "Origin and Use," p. 54.

9. Ibid., p.56.

10. K.C. Chang, Food in Chinese Culture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977) pp. 72-3.

11. W. Eberland, The Local Cultures of South and East China (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1968), p. 102.

12. M. Granet, Chinese Civilization (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., 1930), p. 143.

13. Ibid., p. 145.

14. T.F. Carter, The Invention of Paper in China (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), p. 3.

15. Ibid.

16. K. Chokoki, A Handy Guide to Papermaking (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948), p. 2.

17. K.C. Wong, and W. Lien-Teh, History of Chinese Medicines (Shanghai: National Quarantine Service, 1936), p. 4.

18. J. Doolottle, Social Life of the Chinese (New York: Harper and Bros., 1865), 1:309.

19. Quoted in M.S. Julien, "Chirurgie Chinoise - Substance anesthetique employee en Chine, dans le commencement du III siecle de notre ere, pour paralyser momentanement la sensibilite," Comptes Rendus de l'Academie de Sciences, 28 (1894); 195-8.

20. Li, "Origin and Use", p. 56.

21. Li, "Archaeological and Historical Account", p. 441.

22. N. Taylor, Narcotics: Nature's Dangerous Gifts (New York: 1966), p. 20. All references to this quotation, as far as I can determine, are derived from Taylor's Narcotics, which cites no original source for it.

23. Li, "Origin and Use", p. 56.

24. J.A. MacCulloch (ed.), The Mythology of All Races (Boston: Marshall Jones Co., 1928), 8:13.

25. J. Needham, Science and Civilization in China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 5 (pt. 2):150.

26. H. Li, "Hallucinogenic Plants in Chinese Herbals", Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 10 (1978):17-26.

27. I. Veith, ed., The Yellow Emperor's Classic on Internal Medicine (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1949), pp. 97-8.

28. M. Joya, Things Japanese (Tokyo: Tokyo News Service, 1963), pp. 23-4.

29. Ibid., pp. 196-7.

30. G. Schafer, "Hemp", CIBA Review 49 (1945): 1780.

31. MacCulloch, Mythology, 8:380, note 7.

32. Joya, Things Japanese, p. 361.

33. Ibid., p.24.

34. Ibid.

35. Ibid.

36. M.V. Ball, "The Effects of Haschisch Not Due to Cannabis Indica", Therapeutic Gazette, 34 (1910): 777-80.

37. I.C. Chopra and R.N. Chopra, "The Present Position of Hemp Drug Addiction in India", Indian Medical Research Memoirs 31 (1929): 2.

38. G.A. Grierson, "On References to the Hemp Plant Occurring in Sanskrit and Hindi Literature", in Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report (Simla, India: 1893-4), 3: 247-8.

39. Ibid., p.248.

40. Ibid.

41. S. Beal, Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1882), p. 143.

42. See M.R. Aldrich, "Tantric Cannabis Use in India" Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 9 (1977): 227-33

43. Cf. Agehananda Bharati, The Tantric Tradition (London: Rider and Co., 1965) p. 251; A. Avalon, Tantra of the Great Liberation (New York: Dover, 1972), p. 73.

44. Bharati, The Tantric Tradition, p. 251.

45. J.M. Campbell, "On the Religion of Hemp," in Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report (Simla, India: 1893-4), 3: 250-2.

46. M. Eliade, Shamanism (New York: Pantheon Books, 1964), pp. 399-400.

47. J. Darmester, ed., The Zend-Avesta (London: Oxford University Press, 1882), pp. 267-8.

48. Ibid., p. 309.

49. Herodotus, Histories 5.72-5.

50. S.I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), p. 285. See also, T.T. Rice, The Scythians (New York: Praeger, 1970), p.90; M.L. Artamanov, "Frozen Tombs of the Scythians," Scientific American 212 (1965): 101-9.

51. Herodotus, Histories 1.202.

52. S. Benet, "Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp", in Cannabis and Culture, ed. V. Rubin (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), p.43.

53. L. Bellinger, "Textiles from Gordion", Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club 46 (1962): 5-33.

54. In his Dictionary of Assyrian Botany (p. 220), Campbell identified the Sumerian term a-zal-la and the Akkadian term azulla as cannabis on the basis of their similarities to the Syrian azal, meaning "to spin". Campbell also took the Assyrian word gurgurangu as another reference to cannabis because of its similarity to garganinj, the Persian word for cannabis. Building on these similarities, Campbell then identified the Sumerian drug gan-zi-gun-na as hashish [literally, a robber (gan) who spins away (gun-nu) the soul (zi)]. Campbell also felt that the similarity between gan-zi and the Hindu word qanjha also supports his arguments. However, in a later discussion of this issue (p. 229), he acknowledges the possibility that the Sumerian and Akkadian words he tentatively identified as hashish could just as likely be words denoting narcotics in general and opium specifically.

A letter written around 680 B.C. by an unknown woman to the mother of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, mentions a substance called qu-nu-bu which also may have been cannabis, but again there is no certainty for this identification. Cf. L. Waterman, Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1930), letter 368.

55. L. Waterman, Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1930), letter 368.

56.E.g., H. von Deines and H. Grapow, Grundriss der Medizin der alten Aepten, (Berlin: Verlag, 1959).

There is also no reference to cannabis in any of the hieroglyphic writings on historical documents during the time of the pharaohs. The earliest reference to hashish in Egypt occurs in the twelfth century A.D. (Ayyubid dynasty). Not long thereafter, the drug became a controversial issue in Egyptian society and laws were passed to outlaw its usage (see Chapter 2).

57. Ibid., 6:493.

58. T.E. Peet and C.L. Wooley, City of Akhenaton (Boston: Egypt Exploration Society, 1923), 1: 81.

59. A. Lucas, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries (London: Edward Arnold, 1962), p. 149.

60. A.C. Johnson, "Roman Egypt", in Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, ed. T Frank (Patterson, N.J.: Pageant Books, 1959), 2: 3.

61. Benet, "Early Diffusion", pp. 39-49.

62. E.g., Exodus 30:23; Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:19; Song of Songs 4:14.

63. Cf. H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica Co., 1952), pp. 39-41; R.H. Harrison, Healing Herbs of the Bible (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1966), p. 42.

64. Abodah Zarah 74b

65. Odyssey 4: 219-32.

66. Diodorus, Histories 1.97.7.

67. Quoted in D. Ebin, The Drug Experience (New York: Grove Press, 1965), p. 103.

68. E.W. Lane, ed., The Thousand and One Nights (London: Routledge, 1889), CXI, n. 76.

69. T. DeQuincey, Confessions of an Opium Eater (New York: American Library, 1966), p. 94.

70. A.J. Warden, The Linen Trade (New York: A.M. Kelley, 1968), p. 43.

71. Herodotus Histories 4.74., ed. A.D. Rubin (London: W. Heinemann, 1921.

72. Plutarch, "Of the Names of Rivers and Mountains, And of Such Things as Are To Be Found Therein", in id. Essays and Miscellanies, ed. (London: Simplin, Marshall, Hamilton Kent and Co., n.d.), vol. 5.

73. C. Stefanis, C. Ballas, and D. Madianou, "Sociocultural and Epidemiological Aspects of Hashish Use in Greece", in Cannabis and Culture, ed. V. Rubin (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), p. 307.

74. Athenaeus 5.205f

75. See T.F. Bruner, "Marijuana in Ancient Greece and Rome? The Literary Evidence", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 47 (1973): 344-55.

76. Stefanis et al., "Sociological and Epidemiological Aspects ", p. 307.

77. Dioscorides, Materia Medica 3.165.

78. Galen, quoted in F. Marti-Ibanez, The Epic of Medicine (New York: Clarkson Potter, 1960), p. 92.

79. Galen, De Facultatibus Alimentorum 100.49.

80. Oribasius, quoted by Bruner, "Marijuana", p. 351.

81. Bruner, "Marijuana", p. 351. While Roman farmers as a rule did not raise much hemp some writers did advise how best to sow hemp seeds for a good crop, e.g., Columella, Res Rustica 2.7.1, 2.12.21, 11.275; cf. Pliny, Natural History 19.57.

82. T. Frank, An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome (Patterson, N.J.: Pageant Books, 1959), 4:131.

83. Ibid., pp. 616, 823-4.

84. Pliny, Natural History 20.97.


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