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Major Studies of Drugs and Drug Policy
Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs
Volume 3 - Public Policy Options

Chapter 19 - The International Legal Environment

Multilateral Agreements on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances[1][9]

Date and place signed

Title of agreement

Date of entry into force

26 February 1909

Shanghai, China

Final Resolutions of the International Opium Commission 1

Not applicable

23 January 1912

The Hague, Netherlands

International Opium Convention

11 February 1915 /

28 June 1919 2

11 February 1925

Geneva, Switzerland

Agreement concerning the Manufacture of, Internal Trade in, and Use of Prepared Opium

28 July 1926

19 February 1925

Geneva, Switzerland

International Opium Convention

25 September 1928

13 July 1931

Geneva, Switzerland

Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs 3

9 July 1933

27 November 1931

Bangkok, Thailand

Agreement for the Control of Opium Smoking in the Far East

22 April 1937

26 June 1936

Geneva, Switzerland

Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs

26 October 1939

11 December 1946

Lake Success, New York, USA

Protocol amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs concluded at The Hague on 23 January 1912, at Geneva on 11 February 1925 and 19 February 1925 and 13 July 1931, at Bangkok on 27 November 1931, and at Geneva on 26 June 1936

11 December 1946

19 November 1948

Paris, France

Protocol Bringing under International Control Drugs outside the Scope of the Convention of 13 July 1931, for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the Protocol signed at Lake Success, New York, on 11 December 1946

1 December 1949

23 June 1953

New York, USA

Protocol for Limiting and Regulating the Cultivation of the Poppy Plant, the Production of, International and Wholesale Trade in, and Use of, Opium

8 March 1963

30 March 1961

New York, USA.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

13 December 1964

21 February 1971

Vienna, Austria

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

16 August 1976

25 March 1972

Geneva, Switzerland

Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961

8 August 1975

20 December 1988

Vienna, Austria

United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

11 November 1990


1 This is the only document in the table that is not an enforceable multilateral treaty. It is included because it marks the beginning of substantial international cooperation on drug control.

2 China, the Netherlands, and the U.S. implemented the Convention in 1915 (Honduras and Norway followed suit later that year). It did not come into force globally until it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.

3 As amended by the Protocol signed at Lake Success, New York, on 11 December 1946.



[1][9]  Sources: Canadian Treaty Series; Kettil Bruun, Lynn Pan and Ingemar Rexed, (1975) The Gentlemenís Club: International Control of Drugs and Alcohol, Chicago: University of Chicago Press; United States, (1972) International Narcotics Control: A Source Book of Conventions, Protocols, and Multilateral Agreements, 1909-1971, Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Narcotics & Dangerous Drugs.

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