Schaffer Library of Drug Policy

Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding

History of Marihuana Legislation - References

US National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse

Table of Contents
I. Marihuana and the Problem of Marihuana
Origins of the Marihuana Problem
The Need for Perspective
Formulating Marihuana Policy
The Report
II. Marihuana Use and Its Effects
The Marihuana User
Profiles of Users
Becoming a Marihuana User
Becoming a Multidrug User
Effects of Marihuana on the User
Effects Related to Pattern Use
Immediate Drug Effects
ShortTerm Effects
Long Term Effects
Very Long Term Effects
III. Social Impact of Marihuana Use
IV. Social Response to Marihuana Use
V. Marihuana and Social Policy
Drugs in a Free Society
A Social Control Policy for Marihuana
Implementing the Discouragement Policy
A Final Comment
Ancillary Recommendations
Legal and Law Enforcement Recommendations
Medical Recommendations
Other Recommendations
Letter of Transmittal
Members and Staff
History of Marihuana Use: Medical and Intoxicant
II. Biological Effects of Marihuana
Botanical and Chemical Considerations
Factors Influencing Psychopharmacological Effect
Acute Effects of Marihuana (Delta 9 THC)
Effects of Short-Term or Subacute Use
Effects of Long-Term Cannabis Use
Investigations of Very Heavy Very Long-Term Cannabis Users
III. Marihuana and Public Safety
Marihuana and Crime
Marihuana and Driving
Marihuana - Public Health and Welfare
Assessment of Perceived Risks
Preventive Public Health Concerns
Marihuana and the Dominant Social Order
The World of Youth
Why Society Feels Threatened
The Changing Social Scene
Problems in Assessing the Effects of Marihuana
Marihuana and Violence
Marihuana and (Non-Violent) Crime
Summary and Conclusions: Marihuana and Crime
Marihuana and Driving
History of Marihuana Legislation
History of Alcohol Prohibition
History of Tobacco Regulation
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Marihuana, A Signal of Misunderstanding - Table of Contents

The Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse

I. Control of Marihuana, Alcohol and Tobacco

History of Marihuana Legislation*


Act of June 14,1930, Ch. 488,46 Stat. 585.

Act to Create a Bureau of Customs and a Bureau of Prohibition in the Department of the Treasury, Ch. 348, 44 Stat. 1381 (1927).

Anslinger, H. J., letter to Dr. Woodward (July 28,1930).

"The Reason for Uniform State Narcotic Legislation," Georgetown Law Journal, 21: 52 (1932).

letter to Judge Deering (August 1, 1932).

letter to Reverend John J. Burke (March 1, 1935). letter to Miss Agnes Regan, Executive Secretary of the National Council of Catholic Women (March 28, 1935).
letter to Mrs. Roberta Lawson, President of General Federation of Women's Clubs (January 13, 1936).
letter to Frank Allen of the Cleveland Plain Dealer (October 22, 1936).
letter to F. J. Reynolds, Director, Readers Research Bureau, P. F. Collier and Son Corporation (December 23,1936).
letter to Williams (April 11, 1938).
and Cooper, C. R.: "Marihuana: Assassin of Youth," American Magazine, 18-19 (July, 1937).
and Tompkins, W.: The Traffic in Narcotics, New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co. (1953), P. 159.

Austin Texas Statesman (Austin, Texas), June, 1923.

Baskette, Floyd K., letter to Federal Bureau of Narcotics (September 4,1936).

Birmingham Age-Herald (Birmingham, Alabama), August 22, 1935.

Boggs Act, Chapter 666, 65 Stat. 767 (November 2, 1951).

Boggs Act Hearings, "Hearings on H.R. 3490 before the Subcommittee on Narcotics of the House Committee on Ways and Means," 82nd Cong., 1st Sess., 147-148 (1951).

Bromberg, Walter, "Marihuana Intoxication: A Clinical Study of Cannabis Sativa. Intoxication," American Journal of Psychiatry (91) 1934.

Chicago Examiner (Chicago, Illinois), June 19, 1929. June 22,1929.

Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois), June 3, 1929. July 1, 1929. October 17,1929.

Colorado, "Colorado Laws." Chapter 95, 309 (1927).

Congressional Record, 75th Cong., 1st Sess., 5575, 5689-5692 (1937).

82nd Cong., 1st Sess., 8197-8198, 8207, 8211 (1951). 102: 10689 (1956).

Daniel Committee Hearings, "Hearings on Illicit Narcotics Traffic Before the Subcommittee on Improvements In the Federal Criminal Code of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary," 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 57 (1955).

Dowling, Dr., letter to Acting Surgeon General Periz (December 3, 1920).

Federal Bureau of Narcotics,: "The Need for Uniform Narcotic Drug Act-White Paper" (July, 1933).

: "Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs," 59 (1937).

"Traffic in Opium," 6 (1950). 8 (1951). 28 (1956).

Federal Register, 33: 14880 (October 4, 1968).

Gomila, F. R. and Lambow, M.C.: Marihuana: America's New Drug Problems, Philadelphia: Lippincott (1938), pp. 29-31.

Good, 0. S., letter to H. J. Anslinger (July 31, 1954). Goode, E.: "The Marihuana Market,": Colum. P., 12: 7 (Winter, 1969).

1925 Handbook of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and Proceedings, pp. 977-985 (1925).

1928 pp. 75-78. 323-3-33 (1928).

1929 pp. 43, 332--340 (1929).

1930 pp. 97, 126-427, 485 (1930).

1931 pp. 127-128, 390-402 (1931).

1932 P. 107 (1932).

House Document No. 249, Transmitted to 90th Cong., 1st Sess. (February, 1968).

House Report No. 91-1444 (Part 1) 91st Cong., 2d Sess. (September 10, 1970).

Idaho, "Idaho State Laws," p. 98 (1927).

Jones, letter in U.S. Surgeon General's files to R. P. Smith (August 21, 1920).

Kefauver Committee Hearings, "Hearings Before the Special Senate Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce," 82d Cong., Ist Sess., pt. 14, exhibit 1, 119,240-241, 430-431 (1951).

King: "The Narcotic Bureau and the Harrison Act," Yale Law Journal, 62: 736, 737-739 (1953).

Leary v. United States, 395 U.S., 6, 89 S. Ct. 1532 (1969).

Lindesmith, A. R.: The Addict and the Law, Bloomington: Indiana University Press (1967), pp, 135-161.

Los Angeles Daily News (Los Angeles, California), June 18, 1951.

Montana, "Montana Laws," Chapter 6, p. 5 (1929).

Montana Standard (Butte-Anaconda, Montana), January 22, 1929, p. 3, col. 6.

Narcotics Legislation Hearings, "Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary," 91st Cong., 1st Sess., 267, 4 (1969).

New Mexico, "New Mexico Laws," Chapter 42, Sections 1-2, pp. 58-59 (1923).

New Orleans Statesman (New Orleans, Louisiana), May 28, 1954.

New Orleans Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), May 28,1954.

New York, "New York Laws," Chapter 363, p. 1695 (1927). New York City Mayor's Committee on Marihuana: The Marihuana Problem in the City of New York, Lancaster: Jacques Cattell. Press (1945), p. 12.

New York State Senate: "Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate the Laws In Relation to the Distribution and Sale of Narcotic Drugs," Final Report, Doe. No. 35 (1918), as quoted by Terry & Pellens, The Opium Problem (1928), p. 834.

New York Times (New York, New York), July 30, 1914, pp. 6,8, col. 12.

January 11, 1923, p. 24, col. 1.

September 16,1934, p. 6, col. 3.

June 19,1951, p. 25, col, 1.

February 5,1970, p. 14.

Nutt, Colonel L. C., Deputy Commissioner, Bureau of Prohibition, letter to Walter Clephane, Chairman, Section on Social Welfare, Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (June 13, 1929).

Paul, A. E., Memorandum from Chief, Chicago Station,

Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, to Chief, Central District, pp. 1, 4 (June 27, 1929).

Public Law 89-74, H.R. 2 (July 15, 1965).

Public Law 90-639, H.R. 14096 (October 24, 1968).

"Report of Preliminary Conference on Fifth Tentative. Draft of the Uniform State Narcotic Law," pp. 9-10, 23 (September, 1932).

Rocky Mountain News (Denver, Colorado), September 27, 1931.

Rosevear, J.: Pot: A Handbook of Marihuana, New Hyde Park: University Book (1967), pp. 117-131.

San Antonio Light (San Antonio, Texas), May 4, 1931, editorial.

Santa Fe New Mexican (Santa Fe, New Mexico), January 31, 1923.

Saratogian (Saratoga, New York), September 9, 1936, P. 5.

Schaller, Michael: "The Federal Prohibition of Marihuana," Journal of Social History, 4: pp. 61-78 (1970). Schmeckebler: "The Bureau of Prohibition," in Brookings Institute for Government Research Service Monograph (57) :143 (1929).

Siler, J. S., et al., "Marihuana Smoking in Panama," Military Surgeon, 73: 269-280 (1933).

Tennyson, A. L.: "Consideration of a Uniform State Narcotic Law by the National Conference of Commissioners of Uniform State Laws at Atlantic City, New Jersey, September 9-12, 1931," memorandum for file dated September 16,1931.

_: "Uniform State Narcotic Law," Federal Bureau Association Journal 1: 55 (1932).

Terry, C. and Pellens, M.: The Opium Problem (1928), p. 834.

Texas, "General Laws," Chapter 150, p. 278 (1919).

Texas, "Special Session Laws," Chapter 61, pp. 156-157 (1923).

U.S. Bureau of Immigration: "Commissioner General of Immigration Annual Report" (1915-1930).

U.S. Bureau of Narcotics: "Traffic in Opium," 2: 40 (1966).

21 U.S. -Code, 174 (1964).

26 U.S. Code, 4741-4776, 7237 (1964).

U.S. Code Cong. and Ad. News, 3294 (1956).

U.S. Congress, "Hearings Before the House Committee on Ways and Means on H.R. 6385," 75th Cong., 1st Sess., Washington (1937), 6, 30, 32-37, 59-65, 67-86, 92, 93-95, 97,121.

-, "Hearings Before the Senate Finance Committee on H.R. 6906," 75th Cong., 1st Sess., Washington (1937), 16, 33-34.

"Report of the Committee on Ways and Means on H.R. 6385," 75th Cong., Ist Sess., Washington (1937), 1-2.

U.S. Courts, "Disposition of Defendants Charged with the Violation of Narcotic Drug Laws," Administrative Office, Division of Information Systems (1956-1964). Washington Post (Washington, D.C.), September 29,1934.

White, Dr. William, letter to Surgeon General Treadway (August 3, 1932).

Women',, Christian Temperance Union: Marihuana, Evanston: WCTU Publishing House (1928), pp. 1, 3.

"Union Signal" (Evanston, Illinois), 1936, p. 285.

January 30, 1937, pp. 36, 75.

(yearly bound volumes).

Wood, Will S., letter to Mrs. Roberta Lawson, President of General Federation of Women's Clubs (January 13, 1936).

Woodward, William, letter to Dr. S. L. Hilton (August 6, 1932).

World Narcotic Defense Association, letter to legislators (February,1937).

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