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  The Forbidden Game

    Brian Inglis


ANYBODY KNOWN TO BE WRITING ABOUT DRUGS CAN COUNT UPON getting countless ideas and suggestions and occasionally a valuable lead towards books or authors he has never heard of. I have been very lucky, in this respect; finding myself more than once in possession of a scrap of paper with some reference on it, and remembering only that I had received it from some chance acquaintance at a party. To all those who have helped me in this way, my thanks; and especially to Frances Fitzgerald, Dr. Griffith Edwards, Professor Max Gluckman, Professor Bernard Lewis, Dr. Jonathan Miller, Dr. Neal E. Miller, Professor Michael Shepherd, Dr. Gerry Stimson, Frances Verrinder, R. G. Wasson, and Lyall Watson. Francis Huxley made some suggestions about the section on drugs in primitive societies which I was glad to incorporate; Raye Farr, and Bill Grundy read a preliminary draft (I hope I have profited from their astringent comments) and, along with Bernard Levin (I wish I could have included some of his asides) somehow also found the time to do the invaluable chore of proof-reading. I am also grateful to Jasper Woodcock and his team at the Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence; but my chief debt is to the London Library, for the help from its staff, and for the access to its shelves, where I could browse at random in the—to me—often unfamiliar territory into which the research so often lured me.



    IN HIS BOOK ON COCA, PUBLISHED IN 1901, W. G. MORTIMER WAS able to boast that he had collected 600 titles of articles and books on that drug alone. The bibliography compiled a few years ago by the U.N. Economic and Social Committee on Narcotic Drugs listed nearly 2,000 sources of material on cannabis. In its interim report on drugs in Canada, the Le Dain Committee stated that there were already some 3,000 reports on LSD in scientific journals. When Joseph Robert wrote his history of tobacco, in 1949, the standard research guide contained over 6,000 titles; when he came to revise the book in 1967, he found that the guide, which was also being revised, was expected to include a further 4,000 titles. Nobody, so far as I know, has tried to keep count of the works on opium and its derivatives, but they would certainly reach five figures. As for alcohol, the library at Rutgers University, which specialises in the subject, is reputed to contain 40,000 items.
    The writer of any work purporting to be a history is ordinarily anxious that his bibliography should display the extent and depth of his research; in admitting that mine has been far from comprehensive, I can only plead these figures in mitigation. And there has been another difficulty. As my concern had been mainly with the social rather than the pharmacological effects of drugs, several academic disciplines have been involved. Information about attitudes to drugs can be found not only in many social histories, but in works on anthropology, ethnology, mythology, theology, phenomenology, ecology, etymology and archeology, as well as in the descriptions of travellers, explorers and botanists. It has consequently been an enormous advantage when some professional—or an inspired amateur, like R. G. Wasson—has already researched some part of the territory, and published his findings; but such ventures have been regrettably few.
    There are also some gaps, which cannot be filled until more—or more reliable—information becomes available; drug use behind the Iron Curtain, for example. So the structure of the book, with each chapter devoted to a theme, is designed as far as possible to make use of the material which is available, to illustrate developments in attitudes, to, and legislation about, drugs, rather than to try to cover all the historical ground.
    Where I have quoted from early sources, I have where necessary translated the text into modern English; standardized spelling (sometimes to personal preference: peyotl rather than the now more common peyote); and occasionally modified punctuation or grammar, for clarity.



    For the sake of brevity, I have omitted standard histories, biographies, journals, etc.; nor have I listed the individual state papers which are the chief source of material for the later chapters.
    The place and date of publication refer to the edition I have consulted, which is not necessarily the first edition.

Aaronson, Bernard, and Humphrey Osmond, Psychedelics, London, 1971

Abrams, Stephen, 'Cannabis Law Reform in Britain', (Marijuana Papers, 1972)

Adams, E. W., Drug Addiction, Oxford, 1937

Alexander, General R., The Rise and Progress of British opium smuggling, London, 1856

Alexander, H. G., Narcotics in India and South Asia, London, 1930

Allegro, John, The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, London, 1971

Allen, Dr Nathan, The Opium Trade, Boston, 1850

Allsop, Kenneth, The Bootleggers, London, 1961

Anderson, J. W., Fiji, London, 1880

Andrews, George, and Simon Vinkenoog (editors), The Book of Grass, London, 1967

Anselmini, O., ABC of Narcotic Drugs, Geneva, 1931

Anslinger, Harry, and William Tompkins, The Traffic in Narcotics, New York, 1953

Anslinger, Harry, and Will Oursler, The Murderers, NewYork,1961

Anslinger, Harry, and J. D. Gregory, The Protectors, New York, 1964

Anstie, Francis, Stimulants and Narcotics, London, 1864

Bailey, S. H., The Anti-Drug Campaign, London, 1936

Banks, Sir Joseph, Journal 1768-71, London, 1896

Baudelaire, Charles, My Heart Laid Bare (edited by Peter Quennell), London, 1950

Beaglehole, J. C., The Journals of Captain Cook (Hakluyt Society), Cambridge, 1961

Beattie, John, and John Middleton (editors), Spirit Mediumship and Society in Africa, London, 1969

Beecher, Henry K., 'The Powerful Placebo' (in Journal of the American Medical Association, December 24th, 1955)

Benzoni, Girolamo, History of the New World (tr. Admiral W. H. Smyth; Hakluyt Society), Cambridge, 1851

Bloomquist, E. R., Marijuana, Beverley Hills, 1968

Blue, Frederick, When a State Goes Dry, Ohio, 1961

Boyer, S. S., Hemp, New York, 1900

Brecher, Edward M., Licit and Illicit Drugs, Boston, 1972

Brereton, William H., The Truth about Opium, London, 1882

Brinton, Daniel G., The Myths of the New World, Philadelphia, 1896

Brooks, Jerome E. (editor), Tobacco (five volumes), New York, 1937

The Mighty Leaf, London, 1953

Brown, F. C., Hallucinogenic Drugs, Springfield, III., 1972

Burroughs, William, 'Points of distinction between sedatives and consciousness-expanding drugs' (Marijuana Papers, 1972)

Burton, Richard (translator), The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Benares, 1885

Castaneda, Carlos, The Teachings of Don Juan, Los Angeles, 1971

A Separate Reality, London, 1971

Catlin, George, Liquor Control, London, 1931

Central Control Board (Liquor Traffic) Advisory Committee Report, Alcohol: its action on the human organism, London, 1918 (The D'Abernon Report)

Chang, Hsin-pao, Commissioner Lin and the Opium War, Harvard, 1964

Cherrington, Ernest, History of the Anti-Saloon League, Ohio,1913

Chinese Repository, 1832 ff

Christlieb, Theodore, The Indo-British opium trade and its effect (translated by D. Croom), London, 1879

Claridge, Gordon, Drugs and Human Behaviour, London, 1970

Clark, Walter, Chemical Ecstasy, New York, 1969

Cocteau, Jean, Opium: the diary of a cure (translated by Margaret Crosland), London, 1957

Cohen, Sidney, Drugs of Hallucination, London, 1964

Collis, Maurice, Foreign Mud, London, 1946

Connell, K. H., Irish Peasant Society, Oxford, 1968

Cook, Captain, Voyages of Discovery, London, 1906

Costin, W. C., Great Britain and China 1833-60, Oxford, 1937

Cotlow, Lewis, In Search of the Primitive, London, 1967

Cust, Robert, The Opium Question, London, 1885

Czaplicka, M. A., Aboriginal Siberia, Oxford, 1914

D'Avenant, Charles, 'An Essay upon Ways and Means' (Political and Commercial Works, London, 1771)

Dennett, Tyler, Americans in Eastern Asia, New York, 1941

De Quincey, Thomas, Confessions of an English Opium Eater, London, 1967

D'Erlanger, Baron Henry, The Last Plague of Egypt, London, 1936

De Ropp, Robert S., Drugs and the Mind, London, 1958

De Vesme, Caesar, Primitive Man, London, 1931

Dowdeswell, G. F. 'The Coca Leaf' (Lancet, April 29th, May 6th 1876)

Drake, William Daniel Jr., The Connoisseur's Handbook of Marijuana, London, 1971

Dunn, Will, The Opium Traffic in its International Aspects, New York, 1920

Eatwell, W. C., On the Poppy Cultivation, Calcutta, 1851

Elaide, Mircea, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, London, 1960

Shamanism, New York, 1964

Ellis, E. S., Ancient Anodynes, London, 1946

Ellis, Havelock, 'Mescal: a new artificial paradise' (Contemporary Review, January 1898)

Emboden, William, Narcotic Plants, London, 1972

Evans-Pritchard, Edward Evans, Witchcraft among the Azande, Oxford, 1937

Nuer Religion, Oxford, 1956

Fairbank, John, L., Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast 1841-54, Cambridge, Mass., 1953

Fairholt, F. W., Tobacco, London, 1870

Fleming, Peter, One's Company, London, 1934

—'A Far Eastern Inquiry' (Times, March 8th, 1935)

Forsyth, Frederick, 'The Killer Poppy' (Telegraph Magazine, August 11th, 18th, 25th 1973)

Freeman-Mitford, A. B., Attaché at Peking, London, 1900

French, Richard, Nineteen Centuries of Drink in England, London, 1884

Fry, Edward, 'China, England and Opium' (Contemporary Review, February 1876)

Fry, William Storrs, Facts and Evidence relating to the Opium Trade, London, 1840

Fryer, John, A New Account of East India and Persia (Hakluyt Society), 1909

Fuller, Henry C., The Story of Drugs, London, 1922

Furst, Peter T., Flesh of the Gods, London, 1972

Garcilaso de las Vegas, Royal Commentaries of the Incas (translated by H. V. Livermore), Austin, 1966

Gautier, Theophile, The Hashish Club (translated by Ralph Gladstone; Marijuana Papers, 1972)

Gavit, John P., Opium, London, 1925

Gelfand, Michael, Witch Doctor, London, 1964

Geller, Allen, and Maxwell Boas, The Drug Beat, New York, 1969

Ginsberg, Allen, 'First manifesto' (Marijuana Papers, 1972)

Gluckman, Max, Politics, Law and Ritual in Tribal Society, Oxford, 1965

Goldenweiser, Alexander, Early Civilisation, London, 1923

Goode, Erich (editor), Marijuana, New York, 1969

The Marijuana Smoker, New York, 1970

Gorer, Geoffrey, Africa Dances, London, 1935

Green, Timothy, The Smugglers, London, 1969

Greenberg, Michael, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-47, Cambridge, 1951

Gustaitis, Rasa, Turning On, New York, 1969

Von Hagen, Victor, Highway of the Sun, London, 1856

Haggard, Howard W., Devils, Drugs and Doctors, New York, 1929

Von Hammer, History of the Assassins, (translated O. Wood), London, 1835

Hariot, Thomas, The New Found Land of Virginia, Ann Arbor, 1931

Harner, Michael J. (editor), Hallucinogens and Shamanism, Oxford, 1973

Harrison, Brian, Drink and the Victorians, London, 1971

Hassell, Arthur, 'Properties and Effects of Tobacco' (Lancet, February 21st, 1857)

Haynes, Roy, Prohibition Inside Out, London, 1924

Hayter, Alethea, Opium and the Romantic Imagination, London, 1968

Hemming, John, The Conquest of the Incas, London, 1970

Hesse, Erich, Narcotics and Drug Addiction, New York, 1941

Heward, Edward, St. Nicotine, New York, 1909

Hill, J. Spencer, The Indo-Chinese Opium Trade, London, 1884

Hillier, Sydney, Popular Drugs, London, 1910

Hollingworth, H. L., The influence of caffeine on mental and motor efficiency, New York, 1912

Holt, Edgar, The Opium Wars in China, London, 1964

Hosie, Sir Alexander, On the Trail of the Opium Poppy (two volumes), London, 1914

Hsu, Immanuel, The Rise of Modern China, New York, 1970

Huby, Pamela, and C. W. M. Wilson, 'The effect of centrallyacting drugs on ESP ability in normal subjects' (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, June 1961)

Hunter, Monica, Reaction to Conquest, Oxford, 1936

Hunter, W. C., The 'Fan-Rwae' at Canton, Shanghai, 1911

Huxley, Aldous, The Doors of Perception, London, 1954

Heaven and Hell, New York, 1955

Island, London, 1962

Im Thurn, Everard, Among the Indians of Guiana, London, 1883

James I, King of England, Counterblaste to Tobacco, London, 1604

James, William, The Varieties of Religious Experience, New York, 1925

Johnson, Donald McI., Indian Hemp; a Social Menace, London, 1952

Johnston, James F. W., The Chemistry of Common Life, London, 1879

Jones, Howard, Alcoholic Addiction, London, 1963

Jones, John, The Mysteries of Opium Revealed, London, 1701

Kidd, Dudley, The Essential Kafir, London, 1904

Kluver, Heinrich, Mescal, London, 1928

Koskowski, W., The Habit of Tobacco Smoking, London, 1955

Kroeber, A. L., Anthropology, London, 1923

Kunnes, Richard, The American Heroin Empire, New York, 1973

La Barre, Weston, The Peyote Cult, New Haven, 1938

La Farge, Oliver, A Pictorial History of the American Indians, New York, 1956

La Guardia, Committee on Marihuana, Report, New York, 1944

La Motte, Ellen N., The Opium Monopoly, New York, 1920

The Ethics of Opium, New York, 1924

Opium at Geneva (articles reprinted from the Nation magazine), London, 1930

Lane, E. W., The Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, London, 1908

Lang, Andrew, Myth, Ritual and Religion (two volumes), London, 1887

Laurie, Peter, Drugs, London, 1967

Leary, Timothy, The Politics of Ecstasy, New York, 1965

Le Dain, Gerald, et al., The non-medical use of drugs (interim report of the Canadian Government Inquiry, 1970), London, 1971

Final Report, Ottawa, 1973

Levy, Hermann, Drink, London, 1951

Lewin, Louis, Phantastica, London, 1931

Lewis, Bernard, The Assassins, London, 1967

Livingstone, David, Missionary Travels, London, 1857

Ludlow, FitzHugh, The Hashish Eater, New York, 1960

MacAndrew, Craig, and Robert Edgerton, Drunken Comportment: a social explanation, Chicago, 1969

McBain, Howard L., Prohibition: legal and illegal, New York, 1928

McCord, William, and Joan McCord, Origins of Alcoholism, London, 1960

Mackenzie, Compton, Sublime Tobacco, London, 1957

Malinowski, B., Magic, Science and Religion and other essays, Boston, 1948

Masters, Robert, and Jean Houston, The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience, London, 1967

Mattison, J. B., 'Cocaine drugs and cocaine addiction' (Lancet, May 21st, 1887)

Medhurst, W. H., China, London, 1840

Melland, Frank, In Witch-bound Africa, London, 1923

Michelet, Jules, The Sorceress (translated by A. R. Allison), London, 1905

Mill, J. S., Essay on Liberty, London, 1972

Mitchell, S. Weir, 'Remarks on the effects of the Anhalonium Lewinii (the Mescal Button)' (British Medical Journal, December 5th, 1896)

Monardes, Nicolas, Joyful News out of the New Found World, New York. 1925

Moore, James J., et al. (UN Social Defence Research Institute), Psychoactive drug control: issues and recommendations, Rome, 1973

Moorehead, Alan, The Fatal Impact, London, 1966

Morse, H. B., International Relations of the Chinese Empire, 1834-60, London, 1910

The Chronicles of the East India Company trading to China, 1635-1834 (five volumes), Oxford, 1926

Mortimer, W. G., Peru: History of Coca, the 'divine plant' of the Incas, New York, 1901

Moser, Brian, and Donald Tayler, The Cocaine Eaters, London,1965

Nadel, S. F., 'A Study of Shamanism in the Nube Mountains' (Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society, 1946 (1))

O'Shaughnessy, W. B., On the Preparation of Indian Hemp, Calcutta, 1842

Owen, David, British Opium Policy in China and India, New Haven, 1934

Payne, Ronald, et al., 'Cannabis on Demand: Britain's drug dilemma' (Sunday Telegraph, November l9th, 26th, 1972)

'Philaretes', Work for Chimney Sweepers, London, 1602

Pliny, Natural History (four volumes), London, 1856

Puharich, Andrija, The Sacred Mushroom, New York, 1959

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford, History of Java, London, 1817

Rathbone, W., and L. Fanshawe, Liquor Legislation in the United States and Canada, London, 1895

Raymond, Irving, The Teaching of the Early Church on the Use of Strong Drink, New York, 1927

Reich, Charles, The Greening of America, New York, 1972

Robert, Joseph, The Story of Tobacco in America, University of N. Carolina, 1967

Rolleston, Humphrey, Report of the Committee on morphine and heroin addiction, London 1926

Rosenthal, Franz, The Herb: Hashish in Medieval Muslim Society, Leiden, 1971

Rouhier, Alexandre, Le Petotl, Paris, 1927

Les Plantes Divinatoires, Paris, 1927

Rowntree, Joseph, and Arthur Sherwell, Public Control of the Liquor Tratic, London, 1903

Rowntree, Joseph, The Imperial Drug Trade, London, 1906

Rush, Dr Benjamin, An inquiry into the effects of ardent spirits upon the human body and mind, Brookfield, 1814

Russell, Sir Thomas Wentworth, Egyptian Service 1902-46, London, 1949

Sacks, O., Awakenings, London, 1973

Schofield, Michael, The Strange Case of Pot, London, 1971

Schmidt, Jacob, Narcotics, Springfield, III., 1959

Schultes, Richard E, 'An overview of hallucinogens in the Western Hemisphere' (in Furst, 1972)

Shadwell, Arthur, Drink, Temperance, and Legislation, London, 1902

Shafer, Raymond, et al., Drug Use in America (2nd Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and drug abuse) Washington, 1973

Shepherd, Michael, 'The classification of psychotropic drugs' (Psychological Medicine, May 1972)

Silvestre de Sacy, Sur la dynastie des Assassins et sur l'origine de leur nom, Paris, 1809

Sinclair, Andrew, Prohibition, London, 1962

Slotkin, J. S., Menomini Peyotism, Philadelphia, 1952

Smith, Sydney, 'The Licensing of Alehouses' (Edinburglt Review, September 1826)

Solomon, David (editor), The Marijuana Papers, London, 1972

Sonnini, C. S., Travels in Egypt (three volumes, translated by Henry Hunter), London, 1790

Stevenson, Robert Louis, Works (vol. XVIII), London, 1912

Talalay, Paul (editor), Drugs in Our Society, Baltimore, 1964

Taylor, Norman, Narcotics; Nature's Dangerous Gifts, London, 1963

Plant Drugs that changed the world, London, 1966

Terry, Charles, and Mildred Pellins, The Opium Problem, Montclair N.J., 1970

Thelwall, A. S., The Iniquities of the Opium Trade with China, London, 1839

Thomas, Keith, Religion and the Decline of Magic, London, 1971

Thomson, Basil, The Fijians, London, 1908

Tinling, J. F., The Poppy Plague, and England's Crime, London, 1876

Von Tschudi, J. J., Travels in Peru, London, 1847

Tuohy, Ferdinand, Inside Dope, London, 1834

Turner, F. S., British Opium Policy, London, 1876

Tylor, Edward B., Primitive Culture (two volumes), London, 1929

Underhill, Ruth M., Papago Indian Religion, New York, 1946

Wasson, E. A., Religion and Drink, New York, 1914

Wasson, R. G., and Valentina Wasson, Mushrooms, Russia and History (two volumes), New York, 1957

Wasson, R. G., Soma; divine mushroom of immortality, New York, 1968

Watson, Lyall, Supernature, London,1973

Watt, George, A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, London, 1892

Watts, Alan, The Joyous Cosmology, New York, 1971

Weddel, H. A., Voyage dans le nord de la Bolivie, Paris, 1853

Weil, Andrew, The Natural Mind, London, 1973

Whipple, Sidney B., Noble Experiment, London, 1964

Wighton, Charles, Dope International, London,1960

Wilkinson, Paul, 'Cannabis Indica; a historical and pharmacological study of the drug' (British Journal of Inebriety, October 1929)

Williams, S. Wells, The Middle Kingdom (two volumes), New York, 1883

Willoughby, W. W., Opium as an international problem, Baltimore, 1925

Wilson, A. J. C., 'Ayahuasca, Peyotl, Yage' (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1949)

Wilson, George B., Alcohol and the Nation, London, 1940

Wolf, Stewart, 'Effects of suggestion... the pharmacology of placeboes' (Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1950)

Wolff, Pablo, Marijuana in Latin America; the threat it constitutes, Washington, 1949

Wootton Committee on drugs, Report, London, 1969

Zaehner, Robert, Drugs, mysticism and make-believe, London, 1972

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